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From the Speaker’s Toolkit Source Source Cheryl Hamilton, Essentials of Public Speaking, 3rd Ed. Belmont, CA: Thomson Wadsworth, 2006 What is Speaking Anxiety? What “Trait and Situational Anxiety”
• Trait = Beliefs about yourself • Situation = Weight of the occasion Advice for the Faint of Heart: Advice Calming Speaking Anxiety Prepare and practice, rehearse with a friend Warm up physically and mentally Plan an introduction that relaxes you and your audience Practice positive imagery and self talk “Rhetoritherapy” Identify reasonable speaking goals
• Such as improving delivery skills Specific behaviors and practices needed to achieve them • Such as speaking clearly, making eye contact, posture and gesture Develop procedures for judging success with your goals
• Such as audience/instructor feedback in a classroom setting Common Speech Types Common Informative • Purpose to impart knowledge and information Persuasive • Purpose to move an audience to action or change in beliefs Introductory and special occasion Planning Planning Decide on a speech goal Analyze the audience: Why should they listen to you?
• • • Age Prior knowledge Psychological motivations Gather information • Attitude toward subject and to you Beliefs, needs Organizing a Speech Organizing Topic Purpose (to inform or to persuade) Introduction Body, Main points, Support Transitions Conclusion Initial Sequence Initial Attention Getter geared to your audience Motivate (and continue to motivate) audience to listen Establish credibility and rapport “Thesis statement” • Informative speech, thesis is your purpose for speaking • Persuasive speech, thesis is your position Introduction Introduction Planning the introduction integrates
• • • • Your purpose The occasion Your information Understanding the audience’s motivations Introduction: Style Introduction: Attention getter Examples
• • • • • • • Depends on occasion, topic, purpose and audience • Helps audience relate to you and want to listen A question Humor Story Dramatic statement Putting an important fact in context Make statistics relevant Introduction: Purposes Introduction: Establish the topic Preview the main points Establish your credibility Build rapport Provide background information Define unfamiliar terms Describe materials Introduction: Techniques Introduction: Tell audience your goal:
• • Tell audience how you plan to get there Ways to establish credibility What’s the take away knowledge What you want to persuade them to think or do Content Content Know your topic Do quality research Use relevant and credible sources Relate to your points Plan Transitions Plan Follow sequence of your preview Moving point to point • “Now you know why I want to start my own business. Here’s my plan.” • “The next thing to consider is the cost of the plan.” • “So if leadership skills can be learned, how do we go about that?” • “My next point may surprise you.” Other Transition Techniques Other Keep your audience with you using
• Internal summaries • Repetition • Restatement • Logical progressions Making Main Points Memorable Making Limit the number to 3 to 5 Keep them concise State them in a “parallel” style Use familiar analogies, a rhyme or an acronym • Similar phrasing (question, statement) • Similar sentence structure Organizing an Organizing Informative Speech Topical Chronological • Steve Jobs’ speech • Career path speech Spatial or Geographical Causal
• Effectcause • Causeeffect • Education systems around the world Organizing a Organizing Persuasive Speech Claim pattern Causal • Claim, support, claim, support . . . • Causeeffect ProblemSolution Comparative advantages Criteria satisfaction Combining Patterns Combining Each main point may be organized using a different pattern
• Background information could be presented chronologically • Descriptive information could be presented topically • Problem information could be presented spatially • Persuasion could be presented . . . Creating a Conclusion Creating Summarize Refocus audience on your speech goal Reinforce the takeaway
• Closing thought • Help audience identify or buy in • • Main ideas Support Why Rehearse? Why Builds confidence Reduces reliance on notes Assures the speech is coherent and convincing Assures you’re within your time limits Shows if you’ve missed anything Nonverbal Points for Style Nonverbal Vary your cadence, pitch and intonation Gesture, posture, movement Smile, make eye contact Speak clearly and with the right volume How fast to speak? Pay attention to nonverbal feedback Audience Analysis Audience Approach to topic and audience depends on: Purpose of speaking event Audience attitudes, needs, beliefs, knowledge, culture
• Informing • Persuading Characteristics of Audiences Characteristics Friendly Neutral Uninterested Hostile Psychological Dimensions Psychological Attitudes Beliefs Values Psychological Motivations Psychological
(Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs) Physical – basic physical survival Safety – financial, freedom from fear Social – feeling of belonging Self Esteem – recognition, status, pride Self Actualization – becoming one’s best, achieving worthy goals Analyzing what needs should be addressed should Announcing layoffs, restructuring, new job responsibilities Are the audience’s needs all the same? Does the news affect everyone the same or differently?
• Staff, professionals, new hires, veterans, older/younger Identifying and Addressing Motivators Motivators Security needs (safety) that are threatened Social needs that are threatened Self actualization needs that are threatened ...
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- Spring '08
- Psychological Motivations Psychological, Psychological Dimensions Psychological, Addressing Motivators Motivators