PSY_1_DevelopmentRev2

PSY_1_DevelopmentRev2 - Development NatureNurtureProblem

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Development “Nature-Nurture Problem” Is a trait due to heredity or to the environment?  Sometimes, the problem is  stated as  maturation  vs.  enculturation . Environment can be: chemical pathogen psychological pre-,  peri-,  or post-natal “Nature-Nurture Problem” Error is to state the problem as either-or: Environments can release effects of genes. Genes can control susceptibility to environment. (e.g.,  Baldwin  Effect ) Effects of genes vs. environment can rarely be disentangled. “Nature-Nurture Problem” Whether a trait is genetically influenced does not imply that is it fixed (non- plastic):  in deprivation dwarfism, malnutrition can override height, which is  usually fixed.
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in phenylketonuria (PKU), a simple dietary change can bypass a  genetic flaw. in carotenism people can turn orange by eating too many carrots, or  with too much sun they can turn redder and darker. Trait  plasticity :  how much can the environment affect a trait? Waddington’s “Epigenetic Landscape” Epigenetics (“Above” or “Governing” Genetics) Refers to potentially heritable information not contained in the DNA sequences of  the genome. “Epigenetic markers” refer to modifications of DNA sequences, and can include: Attachment of methyl (CH 3 ) groups to cytosine-guanine pairs, or acetyl  (CH 3 CO) groups to histone proteins that bundle DNA into chromatin  bundles. Jumping or transposition of DNA sequences within a stretch of DNA. Epigenetic modifications, or “markers,” can switch genes on and off. Although most people have identical genomes in each of their ~250 body cell types,  epigenetic markers can differ in each type.  Consequences of Epigenetics
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Because of differences in epigenetic markers, two organisms with identical genomes  (e.g., clones) can have different phenotypes (e.g., Dolly, the cloned sheep, aged faster  and had arthritis, unlike the original animal) Human identical twins begin with nearly identical epigenetic markers, but different  lifestyles changed their markers as they aged (
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PSY_1_DevelopmentRev2 - Development NatureNurtureProblem

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