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Bio 203 Lecture 3 RSA 1-28-08

# Bio 203 Lecture 3 RSA 1-28-08 - Probability What is the...

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Probability What is the chance that a given event will occur? what is the chance that a child, or a family of children, will have a given phenotype? Probability - expressed in numbers between 0 and 1. Probability = 0 means the event never happens probability = 1 means it always happens. The total probability of all possible event always sums to 1.

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Chance deviation from an expected outcome is diminished by larger sample size .
The Multiplication and Addition Rules The multiplication rule probability that two or more independent events will occur together is the product of their individual probabilities. The addition rule States that the probability that any one of two or more exclusive events will occur is calculated by adding together their individual probabilities

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The Multiplication Rule States that the probability that two or more independent events will occur together is the product of their individual probabilities.
Laws of probability Help Explain Genetic Events Genetic rations are most properly expressed as probabilities - 3/4 tall:1/4 dwarf. These values predict the out come of self fertilization of F1 for one pair of contrasting alleles. × Rr Segregation of alleles into eggs Rr Segregation of alleles into sperm R r r R R R R 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 4 1 4 1 4 1 4 1 2 r r R r r Sperm × Eggs

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The rule of addition States that the probability that any one of two or more exclusive events will occur is calculated by adding together their individual probabilities
Conditional Probability In the F2 in a monohybrid cross of a tall and dwarf plant, what is the probability that a tall plant is heterozygous. pc = pa/pb pa = 1/2 pb= ¾ Pc = (1/2) /(3/4) =2/3

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Conditional Probability When one event depends on another, the likelihood of the desired outcome is the conditional probability. Example: In a monohybrid cross DD X dd.
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Bio 203 Lecture 3 RSA 1-28-08 - Probability What is the...

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