Despelder8_ppt_ch12

Despelder8_ppt_ch12 - Chapter TwelveC È Chapter Suicide...

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Unformatted text preview: Chapter TwelveC È Chapter Suicide Copyright © 2009 Lynne Ann DeSpelder and Albert Lee Strickland Some Definitions of Suicide s s Act or instance of taking one’s own Act life voluntarily and intentionally life Self-killing derived from inability or Self-killing refusal to accept the terms of the human condition human Copyright © 2009 Lynne Ann DeSpelder and Albert Lee Strickland Copyright Some Definitions of Suicide (continued) s s Behavior that seeks and finds the Behavior solution to an existential problem by making an attempt on the life of subject subject The human act of self-inflicted, selfintentioned cessation Copyright © 2009 Lynne Ann DeSpelder and Albert Lee Strickland Copyright Statistical Issues in Suicide s s s About 30,000 people end their lives About by suicide in the United States annually annually Females attempt suicide more Females frequently than males frequently Males are more likely to die by Males suicide suicide Copyright © 2009 Lynne Ann DeSpelder and Albert Lee Strickland Copyright The Psychological Autopsy s s Helps clarify mode of death: natural, Helps accident, suicide, or homicide accident, Examines potential connection Examines between person’s state of mind and timing of death timing Copyright © 2009 Lynne Ann DeSpelder and Albert Lee Strickland Copyright The Psychological Autopsy (continued) s s Provides data about trends in suicidal Provides behavior behavior Offers information that may help Offers survivors resolve questions survivors Copyright © 2009 Lynne Ann DeSpelder and Albert Lee Strickland Copyright Theories of Suicide s Sociological model (Emile Durkheim) x Suicide results from disturbances in ties Suicide between the individual and society between s Psychological model (Sigmund Freud) x Suicide results from disturbances within the Suicide individual’s psyche individual’s Copyright © 2009 Lynne Ann DeSpelder and Albert Lee Strickland Copyright Social Context of Suicide s Degree of social integration x Egoistic suicides x Altruistic suicides s Degree of social regulation x Anomic suicides x Fatalistic suicides Copyright © 2009 Lynne Ann DeSpelder and Albert Lee Strickland Copyright Egoistic Suicide s s s s Alienation from social institutions and Alienation traditions traditions Detached from social life, dependent Detached on own resources and coping skills on Excessive individualism, self-centered Excessive mental energies Social sanctions against suicide Social ineffective ineffective Copyright © 2009 Lynne Ann DeSpelder and Albert Lee Strickland Copyright Altruistic Suicide s s s s Excessive identification with values of Excessive society society Strong sense of integration with social Strong group group Loss of individual identity Group’s values more important than Group’s individual’s values individual’s Copyright © 2009 Lynne Ann DeSpelder and Albert Lee Strickland Copyright Anomic Suicide s s s s s Society is loosely or insufficiently Society regulated regulated Sense of chaos and confusion Loss of traditional values and mores Anxiety, disorientation, isolation, Anxiety, loneliness loneliness Disruptive change, sudden trauma, Disruptive catastrophe catastrophe Copyright © 2009 Lynne Ann DeSpelder and Albert Lee Strickland Copyright Fatalistic Suicide s s s s s Society characterized by repressive Society constraints constraints Rigid social regulation Lack of freedom and absence of Lack choice choice Inability to express individuality Sense of nowhere to turn Copyright © 2009 Lynne Ann DeSpelder and Albert Lee Strickland Copyright Psychodynamics of Suicide s s s s Focuses on individual’s mental and Focuses emotional life emotional Encompasses conscious as well as Encompasses unconscious motives unconscious Most suicidal events are dyadic, Most dyadic involving both victim and a significant other significant Acute suicidal crisis relatively brief, Acute though may recur though Copyright © 2009 Lynne Ann DeSpelder and Albert Lee Strickland Copyright Psychodynamics of Suicide (continued) s Suicidal person likely to be Suicidal ambivalent about ending his or her life ambivalent x Conflicting forces compete for person’s Conflicting mental energies mental x Will to live versus will to die Copyright © 2009 Lynne Ann DeSpelder and Albert Lee Strickland Copyright Psychodynamics of Suicide (continued) s Powerful forces of aggression Powerful aggression involved in suicidal behavior involved x Strong, unconscious hostility combined with Strong, lack of capacity to love others lack x Suicide is “murder in the 180th degree” Copyright © 2009 Lynne Ann DeSpelder and Albert Lee Strickland Copyright Toward an Integrated Understanding of Suicide s s Social context and psychodynamic Social factors interact in integrated fashion factors Suicide and suicidal events are Suicide multidimensional and multifaceted multidimensional Copyright © 2009 Lynne Ann DeSpelder and Albert Lee Strickland Copyright Understanding Suicide (continued) s s s Suicide caused by psychache Suicide psychache (Shneidman) (Shneidman) Suicide involves unbearable pain due Suicide to blocked needs of whatever kind to Suicide aims to reduce tension of this Suicide pain pain Copyright © 2009 Lynne Ann DeSpelder and Albert Lee Strickland Copyright Some Types of Suicide s s Suicide as escape: “A way out of “A suffering” suffering” Cry for help: “Aims to eliminate some “Aims problem or force a change in the troublesome situation” troublesome Copyright © 2009 Lynne Ann DeSpelder and Albert Lee Strickland Copyright Some Types of Suicide (continued) s s Subintentional suicide: “Person plays “Person some partial, covert, subliminal, or unconscious role in hastening his or her own demise” her Chronic suicide: “Person who “Person shortens his or her life by means of drugs, alcohol, smoking, reckless living, and the like living, Copyright © 2009 Lynne Ann DeSpelder and Albert Lee Strickland Copyright Risk Factors Influencing Suicide s s s s Culture Personality Individual situation Biological factors Copyright © 2009 Lynne Ann DeSpelder and Albert Lee Strickland Copyright Lifespan Perspectives on Suicide s s s s Childhood Adolescence and young adulthood Middle adulthood Late adulthood Copyright © 2009 Lynne Ann DeSpelder and Albert Lee Strickland Copyright Lifespan Perspectives on Suicide: Childhood s s s Suicide relatively rare in young Suicide children children Risk higher among those who have Risk made an earlier attempt made Rate might be higher if childhood Rate “accidents” were examined more closely for intent closely Copyright © 2009 Lynne Ann DeSpelder and Albert Lee Strickland Copyright Lifespan Perspectives on Suicide: Adolescence and Young Adulthood s s Suicide is third leading cause of death Suicide for people ages fifteen to twenty-four in the U.S. in Social disruption, interpersonal Social conflict, psychological problems, and psychiatric illness are important risk factors factors Copyright © 2009 Lynne Ann DeSpelder and Albert Lee Strickland Copyright Lifespan Perspectives on Suicide: Adolescence and Young Adulthood (continued) s Substance abuse is a common theme, Substance often combined with depression and availability of a gun availability Copyright © 2009 Lynne Ann DeSpelder and Albert Lee Strickland Copyright Lifespan Perspectives on Suicide: Middle Adulthood s s May involve an accumulation of May negative life events negative Risk factors include: x Loss of dreams and ambitions x Difficulties in marriage or career x Depression and alcoholism Copyright © 2009 Lynne Ann DeSpelder and Albert Lee Strickland Copyright Lifespan Perspectives on Suicide: Late Adulthood s s Highest risk of suicide for any age Highest group, particularly elderly white males males Suicide may be viewed as a rational Suicide choice that offers release from severe illness or other hardships of old age illness Copyright © 2009 Lynne Ann DeSpelder and Albert Lee Strickland Copyright Lifespan Perspectives on Suicide: Late Adulthood (continued) s Risk factors include: x Being divorced or widowed x Living alone x Illness (psychiatric or physical) Copyright © 2009 Lynne Ann DeSpelder and Albert Lee Strickland Copyright Suicide Notes s s s “Cryptic maps of ill-advised journeys” About one-fourth of suicides write a About final message for survivors final Suicide notes display a variety of Suicide messages and intentions messages Copyright © 2009 Lynne Ann DeSpelder and Albert Lee Strickland Copyright Suicide Notes (continued) s s Many notes convey intense love-hate Many ambivalence toward survivors ambivalence Suicide notes can have significant Suicide effect on survivors, who have no opportunity to respond opportunity Copyright © 2009 Lynne Ann DeSpelder and Albert Lee Strickland Copyright Suicide Prevention s Aims to reduce suicide risk through Aims education, healthy coping strategies, critical thinking skills, and enhanced self-esteem self-esteem Copyright © 2009 Lynne Ann DeSpelder and Albert Lee Strickland Copyright Suicide Intervention s Emphasizes short-term care and Emphasizes treatment of persons in suicidal crisis treatment Copyright © 2009 Lynne Ann DeSpelder and Albert Lee Strickland Copyright Suicide Postvention s Provides assistance to all survivors of Provides all suicide, including attempters, as well as families, friends, and associates of those who die by suicide those Copyright © 2009 Lynne Ann DeSpelder and Albert Lee Strickland Copyright Helping a Person in a Suicidal Crisis s s s Listen carefully to what the person is Listen communicating communicating Take suicidal threats seriously Help the person find something Help valuable or worthwhile that can sustain the will to live sustain Copyright © 2009 Lynne Ann DeSpelder and Albert Lee Strickland Copyright Helping a Person in a Suicidal Crisis s Recognize that no one can take Recognize ultimate responsibility for another human being’s decision to end his or her life her Copyright © 2009 Lynne Ann DeSpelder and Albert Lee Strickland Copyright ...
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This note was uploaded on 03/02/2011 for the course SOC 353 taught by Professor Ibrahimnaim during the Spring '11 term at ASU.

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