Criminal Justice Exam 1

Criminal Justice Exam 1 - C riminal Justice Notes Exam 1...

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Criminal Justice Notes Exam 1 Chapter 1: What is Criminal Justice What is Criminal Justice? Police, Courts and Corrections Public Order Perspective: Interests of safety and order in society; takes precedents over individual rights Individual Rights Perspective: Protection of personal freedoms within criminal justice process as well as protection from abuse (due process) What Creates Shifts in the balance? Personal Beliefs Political ideology public order Views on drug use War on Drugs Situation/Context Child abuser reporting drugs down the street public order Woman beats kids in house individual rights Airport Security vs. Search of home Socially Altering Events/ Shifts in Social Philosophy 9/11 1960’s liberal time frame; personal rights 1980s more conservative; get tough approach; crime rates went up Due Process: an established course for judicial proceedings or other governmental activities designed to safeguard the legal rights of individuals Right to an attorney for all defendants Right to appeal verdict Probable cause for arrest Evidence introduced in court Criminal Justice System
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Police Crime committed crime becomes known to police; investigation and evidence Arrest (on site, warrant, Miranda rights) Booking (fingerprints, photograph, personal information) Courts : First Appearance preliminary hearing (crime committed, committed by defendant) Indictment or Information (Grand Jury, filtering process) Arraignments (not guilty, guilty, no contest) Adjudication (plea bargain, trial types) Sentencing (judge imposes sanction, consecutive vs. concurrent sentencing, appeals) Corrections Sentencing: Community Corrections o Probation o Electronic monitoring o Day Reporting centers Jail o 1 yr or less Prison o Release o Parole o Death sentence Consensus Model Parts of the system work together harmoniously Smooth, coordinated Assembly line precision Vs. Conflict Model Goals of individual agencies conflict Uncoordinated approach Criminal justice non-system Chapter 2: The Crime Picture Importance of Crime Data Why do we care how much crime there is? Social Indicator o Condition of Society
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o What issues need attention Effectiveness of Criminal Justice System activities and policies o Police enforcement o Incarceration o Legalization of marijuana Public Use o Where to live- what is safe to live in o Insurance companies Criminological Research Sources of Crime Data Official Reports o Uniform Crime Reports (UCR): produces an annual overview of major crime Victim Surveys o National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS): annual survey of selected American households conducted by the Bureau of Justice statistics to determine the extent of criminal victimization-especially those, which are unreported.
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