Chapter 4 Notes - Chapter 4 The Role of Books in Our...

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Unformatted text preview: Chapter 4 The Role of Books in Our Culture Books: Unique Print Media Less timely among all print media Bound & covered Made to last longer than other print media (thus in-depth, durable, & well-developed) Not heavily supported by advertising; must earn profits based on sales of content Why Books Are Important After thousands of years, principal repository of culture, technical knowledge guidance, teaching sources on many subjects, religious doctrines basic reference Can promote powerful ideas; inspire great changes Still a source for entertainment The Origins of Books Oldest of all mass media Sumerians developed clay tablets Greeks perfected the alphabet Egyptians as early as 3000 B.C. pounded thin layers of reeds grown by the Nile, papyrus Scrolls came first; mostly religious; few remain, such as the Dead Sea Scrolls Led to libraries in Egypt, Rome, Greece; most destroyed by invaders Romans Contributions to Print First to go from scrolls to true books with cut pages, uniform size, writing on both sides Originated grammatical structure of sentences, then paragraphs Standardized systems of punctuation Created forerunners of uppercase, or capital, and lowercase letters. Chinese Develop Paper Chinese developed paper, named for papyrus, as early as the 2nd century A.D. During 8 th century, Persians captured Chinese paper makers; secret divulged; Islamic world had paper long before Europeans. Paper brought to Spain by Moors in the 12 th century; finally all through Europe within century; led to monks handwriting books Johannes Gutenberg Born in 1400 in Mainz, Germany Moved from one job to another, one city to another; 1 st a goldsmith for religious charms; eventually printed indulgences Marco Polo brought back wood-block printing from China In 1455, converted wine press into a printing system Gutenbergs Press Did not invent the press, but 1 st to use individual, interchangeable metal letters Known as movable type because letters could be arranged & rearranged, 1 letter at a time, into words & lines of print In 1456, printed his first book, Bible ; 2 columns, beautifully ornate Each copy cost the equivalent of 3 years pay of average worker; never sold enough Printing press was repossessed; died penniless Printing Press After Gutenberg Over next 3 decades, printing presses spread throughout Europe Government set up prior approval for printers Church set up the 1 st office of censorship in Mainz in 1485; city that gave us printing in 1455 also gave us first censorship after 30 years Too late for censorship; press led to the Protestant Reformation & many upheavals Why Books Were Nonessential Early settlers fighting for survival Worked from sunrise to sunset Candles too precious for night reading Books regarded as symbols of wealth/status Puritans servants of the Lord Books were not portable, so few transported from England...
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Chapter 4 Notes - Chapter 4 The Role of Books in Our...

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