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Unformatted text preview: Department of Speech & Hearing Science Arizona State University Universal Packet
AMERICAN SIGN LANGUAGE SUPPLEMENTAL COURSE PACKET FOR ALL LEVELS
YOU DO NOT NEED TO PRINT THIS DOCUMENT UNLESS ASSIGNED BY YOUR INSTRUCTOR. SAVE THIS FILE ON YOUR COMPUTER FOR REFERENCE. YOU SHOULD HAVE A SEPARATE, PRINTED COURSE LEVEL PACKET IN ADDITION TO THIS DOCUMENT. 2009 The American Sign Language Program at Arizona State University This packet is designed for use by Arizona State University ASL students. Unless otherwise noted, no part of this packet may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without written permission from the Director of the ASL Program at Arizona State University. Editor: Paul Quinn Department of Speech & Hearing Science -0102 Program Office Location: Coor 2211 UNIVERSAL PACKET ASU ASL CALLING SOMEONE WHO USES VRS
All of the ASU ASL faculty can use the VRS. It is the most preferred way to communicate with deaf and hard-of-hearing people! Sorenson Video Relay Service (VRS) is a free service for the deaf and hard-of-hearing community that enables anyone to conduct video relay calls with hrough a certified ASL interpreter via a broadband Internet connection and a video relay solution (or VRS call option). Video relay calls are placed over a high speed or broadband Internet connection (i.e. DSL or T1 line) through a videophone equipped with a Web camera. The deaf user sees an ASL interpreter on their TV and signs to the conversation between the two parties. Hearing customers can also place video relay calls to any deaf or hard-of-hearing individual. How do I place a video relay call to a deaf or hard-of-hearing individual if I am a hearing individual? imply dial the video phone user’s direct phone number (aka “real number”). Easy! The call will be answered by the next available interpreter. The interpreter will greet you then continue placing the call. If you were not given a direct phone number, you will have to call the relay number first - toll free 1-866-FAST-VRS (1-866-327-8877). Provide the VP number you have been given to the operator. handles the entire connection process with one number. How does it work? You speak to the interpreter and the interpreter will sign everything you everything that is signed. It’s almost like a regular phone call but the conversation may be a little ask for it before you make a call. The interpreters are ready and used to helping people learn how to use the system. All domestic Sorenson VRS calls are free for both the caller and receiver. For more detailed CALLING SOMEONE WHO USES A TTY
Many deaf people still use a TTY for telephone c can place calls to people who use a TTY by using the statewide relay service. Every state has the call as if you dialed it direct (this includes any applicable long distance charges). To access ial 711 or 1-800-842-4681 from any telephone in Arizona. Ask the operator for instructions prior to making your call.
2 UNIVERSAL PACKET ASU ASL FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS How do I communicate with my teacher if I don’t know sign yet?
difficult to ask questions or make comments to your teacher! Everyone knows this so you can use any means you feel comfortable with to communicate. Many students choose to use pen and paper. You simply write back and forth with your instructor. This is perfectly acceptable. You this may seem a How do I do well in this ASL class? Practice. Practice. Practice. Try to relax and be patient. It’s okay to make mistakes. Complete that you should practice?). What if I don’t understand what the instructor is signing? The best thing to do is to be patient. Virtually everything will be signed more than once. You are USING VOICE OR WHISPER DURING CLASS! What are the tests like? You will watch the instructor sign material from your homework and class activities. You will be questions about deafness and Deaf culture based on your workbook and readings. What if I miss a class? Attendance is critical to success in ASL. This is a university and it is your responsibility to attend best to find out what you missed from your classmates. Your syllabus and this packet includes additional information regarding absences. What if I miss a test? It can only be excused under the circumstances outlined in the “Absence Policy” in this packet. Otherwise If those other assignments are only worth a few percentage points each, why bother? Those points can mean the difference between grades. If you are on the border between two final grades as a result of these assignments. 3 UNIVERSAL PACKET ASU ASL What happens if I turn in an assignment late? Late assignments will not be accepted. Assignments are due at the beginning of your class period Is it true that ASL is an easy language to learn? Easier than Spanish and French? I need to take the next level so I don’t forget ASL but the class I want is full! Don’t panic. It is the policy of the ASU ASL program not to grant overrides into any classes. The only exception is students seeking enrollment in SHS-202 for the same semester they are graduating. You are encouraged to keep diligently trying to add the class all the way up to the first week of classes. Many students do get into classes after the normal enrollment period. Even ASL courses without a break. (See “Program Disclosures: ASL Enrollment Disclosure” on the following page). Is it in your future? CTA stands for Classroom Tutoring Assistant. The primary role of a CTA is work with (the "host class"). This allows the CTA to reinforce their own ASL skills as well as develop a bond with the students in class. CTA's are free to schedule tutoring sessions with students from their host class at any time. Students receive tutoring free of charge. CTA’s are not paid but receive a wealth of unique experience and up to 2 units of upper division elective credit. There are only a limited number of spaces available in the CTA program. If you meet the minimum requirements u may be eligible to become a CTA in the future. You must be available to attend every meeting of your host class so it must fit your schedule. Additional restrictions apply. REQUIREMENTS Currently attending ASU Completed at least the first two levels of ASL Taken at least one semester of ASL at ASU ASL GPA of at least 3.00 There is an application process and everyone is not accepted. levels. Feel free to ask your instructor or the Program Director questions anytime. 4 UNIVERSAL PACKET ASU ASL PROGRAM DISCLOSURES
A list of important program disclosures appears either on your syllabus or was distributed in class GENERAL INFORMATION
GRADING A very difficult to quantitatively grade a language student’s work using a fixed grading system. In often determined by the instructor’s interpretation. The ASU ASL faculty consists of experts in the field all of whom have a minimum of 10 years ASL teaching experience. Their experience and ASL fluency affords them the abilit HOMEWORK Homework assignments are critical to the development of your sign skills. They will be announced in class. Make sure you copy down the assignments and due dates. If you miss information after class . Tests can cover any information from homework that has been assigned prior to the test date. When workbook units ust be done with the videotext (videotape or DVD). TEST DATES usually announced at least one class in advance. You are responsible for knowing when each test will be given. Interview and special COURSE WITHDRAWAL The last day to withdraw from this class without restriction is listed on the university semester catalogue (online or in print). You are free to withdraw during this time without your instructor’s approval. Any request for withdrawal beyond that date (restricted withdrawal) will be handled strictly by the procedures outlined in the Arizona State University General Catalogue. Consult the catalogue for details. Restricted withdrawals require instructor approval. INCOMPLETE A grade of Incomplete will only be granted in extreme circumstances. Extreme circumstances do not include difficulty with your current academic program. Written documentation of the reason(s) for the Incomplete will be required. the Dean must all approve the request. Consult the general catalogue for details. AUDITING Auditing may be allowed in special situations with the permission of your instructor. If you are intereste of the semester. You are responsible for understanding the consequences of auditing a course.
5 UNIVERSAL PACKET ASU ASL VIEWING YOUR VIDEO
The VISTA program utilizes not only a student workbook but also a student videotext (videotape or DVD). You may view your videotape using any VHS VCR. If you purchased the DVD version . please see your instructor or go to Hayden Library and inquire at the main desk. the Coor building. Ask for a computer that will play a DVD. None of the video materials contain sound so they will not disturb people in a public setting. If You must watch the video if you want to succeed in this class. PREREQUISITE REQUIREMENT
The ASU Course Catalogue lists a prerequisite for SHS-102 SHS-201 and SHS-202. In Program enforces the following grade requirements: To enroll in SHS-102 To enroll in SHS-201 To enroll in SHS-202 A student must receive a grade of ‘C’ or better in SHS-101. A student must receive a grade of ‘C’ or better in SHS-102. A student must receive a grade of ‘C’ or better in SHS-201. Pre-registering prior to receiving your final grade will not circumvent this prerequisite. If a automatically dropped from their ASL class prior to the start of the next semester. yourself should drop the affected ASL course rse and seek a grade replacement. fail the next level. This can cause more damage to your graduation plans than retaking the course to begin with. 6 UNIVERSAL PACKET ASU ASL ASL PROGRAM POLICY ON ABSENCES
ANY INFORMATION IN YOUR SYLLABUS SUPERSEDES THIS INFORMATION. Most students do not miss class. You will only need to worry about this information if you miss a class or mandatory activity at some point during the semester. assignments are not accepted unless otherwise noted by your instructor. Departmental policy requires that exceptions be made in the case of: SERIOUS ILLNESS Must have a dated note from your physician or Student Health stating that you were too ill to attend class. This note must be presented within seven days of your return to class. FAMILY DEATH OR
EMERGENCY Documentation may be required. SCHOOL
REQUIREMENTS you must provide a note in advance from the instructor with that instructor’s phone number. Sorority and Fraternity events do not count in this category and cannot be used as an excuse for absence. you must present appropriate documentation within seven days of your absence. You may be eligible to make up the missed work or have that work excused test means that the test you missed will simply be dropped from your total points available. must abide by your instructor’s set absence policy and their interpretation of penalize students for excessive absences unrelated to the reasons stated above. Your syllabus should contain details of your instructor’s absence policy. This policy will be strictly enforced. Remember that your grade cannot improve if you miss classes. LATENESS
Arriving late to an ASL class is disruptive. Instructors may penalize students for frequent instructor may take such behavior into account when dealing with borderline grades. 7 UNIVERSAL PACKET ASU ASL PRACTICE GROUPS
You must practice outside of class in order to succeed in your ASL class. All students should be involved in a study group. The best study groups consist of 3-4 students in the same ASL class is effective. You should form your study groups within the first weeks of the semester. TUTORING
Tutoring is often difficult to come by. Practicing with other students is the best way to improve. be interested in additional assistance from a tutor. There are several ways to obtain tutoring services. each semester. Learning Support Services – Learning Support Services provides free tutoring to ASU students in a vari . Classroom Tutoring Assistants (CTA) - Some classes have CTA's available for tutoring. A CTA is an ASL student who has met certain minimum requirements and attended special training with one of the ASL faculty. CTA's are not paid but receive unit credit for their work. If your arrange tutoring. Private tutors – You will frequently see advertisements for private tutors. The fees will vary and employing the services of a private tutor. y will be announced in class. WHAT IS A LISTING ID?
consists of the last four digits of your affiliate ID followed by the last three digits of your ASU ID. Your affiliate ID is located to the right of your ASU ID on your student ID card (“Sun Card”). This method is probably used in your other ASU courses. Your listing ID would be 2127-011. 03334992127” and your ASU ID is “992146011.” 8 UNIVERSAL PACKET ASU ASL WRITING PAPERS
appropriate use of English and adherence to the guidelines below. Your papers must use the exact format outlined below for full credit (unless otherwise noted by your instructor). YOUR PAPER MUST BE:
Written in appropriate English Typed and double-spaced Stapled. (no report covers) COVER PAGE If your instructor requires a cover page please use the format below: - Title of paper or book - Your name - Your LISTING ID - This class title and number (“SHS-xxx”) - This class start time (“10:00am”) - Instructor’s last name - Word count (generated by your computer) EXAMPLE COVER PAGE A Deaf Adult Speaks Out by Leo M. Jacobs Jack E. Student 8899-223 SHS-101 / 10:00am Quinn Word Count = 468 DO NOT USE A COVER PAGE UNLESS YOUR INSTRUCTOR REQUIRES ONE WRITING ASSISTANCE assistance to any student who wants extra help with a written assignment. The Writing Center has several campus locations. Visit for information. If you assignment due dates. It is available for your work in all your classes. 9 UNIVERSAL PACKET ASU ASL INTERVIEWS
receptive test how well you can read and understand ASL. The ASL interview is designed specifically to test your expressive abilities - how well you produce ASL. All ASL students in SHS-101 and SHS-102 are required to complete one or two interviews that are usually conducted near the middle and end of the semester. The interview can take a variety of forms depending on your instructor and the target skills. You may perform alone or with a partner. Your interview may be videotaped to produce a physical record of the event. The interview is not meant to be a surprise. You will know where and when it will take place well in advance. You do not need to dress up. Interviews usually last 10The content of the interview can vary by student. It is usually structured as an informal conversation but this too can vary by instructor. Your instructor will give you additional details as the interviews approach. Survival Tips Don't be late and don't miss your interview. Always answer completely. Never simply sign "YES" or "NO" Clarity is far more important than speed. Take your time. Don't forget to breathe. It will sustain your life. Preparation The interview is a cumulative test. It can contain material from anything that you have learned in this class. For SHS-102 SHS-101. The best way to prepare is to practice conversational sign with your classmate your ability to hold a conversation comfortably. NOTE: The interview format varies from instructor to instructor. Pay close attention to the information your instructor provides in class. Information that you receive in class supersedes any information presented on this page. 10 UNIVERSAL PACKET ASU ASL FINGERSPELLING TIPS
words that have no sign. It is important for the beginner to concentrate on developing both expressive and receptive skills in fingerspelling in order to become fluent in ASL. It takes most beginners at least two semesters to develop basic receptive and expressive fingerspelling skills. POSITION The palm of the hand should be facing the person you are conversing with except for the letters FLOW AND RHYTHM The formation of each letter should be clear and distinct. There should be a slight pause between proceeding with the first letter of the next word. Don’t be concerned with speed - concentrate on your rhythm. Your speed will increase naturally. Do not bounce your hand. It is important that you keep your arm still when fingerspelling. Clarity is much more important than speed. READING FINGERSPELLING (RECEPTION) f. head as it is spelled. Longer words can be broken up into syllables and sounded out to make one PRODUCING FINGERSPELLING (EXPRESSION) the word as you fingerspell which will provide the other person with additional cues. DOUBLE LETTERS Many words have double letters. There are general guidelines for the fingerspelling production of words with double letters: When spelling a word that doubles When spelling a word that doubles ag” or slightly move the entire letter to the right (for right-handed signers) or to the left (for left-handed signers). 11 UNIVERSAL PACKET ASU ASL VARIATIONS ON LETTERS Certain letters have several acceptable sign variations. These variations are usually related to palm orientat recognize the variations and feel free to use whichever style is most comfortable for you. Variations are common so you will definitely see them. LOAN SIGNS Fingerspelled words that are used very frequently can evolve into signs on their own. These signs are called loan signs. They are borrowed from the English language. Loan signs look like very are missing or incomplete. This is not considered sloppy because these words have become signs. The unique movement distinguishes them from ordinary words. Examples of loan signs include: CAR, DOG, BANK, and BACK. PRACTICE IS THE KEY Fingerspelling skills take time to develop. Most people learning sign will practice for almost one year before beginning to feel comfortable with fingerspelling. Fingerspelling is a minor component of American Sign Language. Concentrate on acquiring the signs and structure of ASL. Your fingerspelling abilities will develop over time. PRACTICE EVERYDAY AND YOUR FINGERS WILL FLY
12 UNIVERSAL PACKET ASU ASL THE PARAMETERS OF SIGN LANGUAGE
Sign Languag PAGE 1 OF 2 -sign a word. We use these Parameters of ou and others produce. Easy to remember: “M.O.P.S.” Movement Orientation Placement Shape How do you move your hand(s) during the sign? Which way do your palm(s) face? (palm orientation)
tomorrow Where do you place the sign on your body or in space? What handshape(s) do you use? What about EXPRESSION?
expression is considered a critical component of communication in American Sign Language. Your facial expression conveys much of the nd unclear. If you NOTE: Several different versions of the Parameters of Sign exist which use slightly different (continued) 13 UNIVERSAL PACKET ASU ASL THE PARAMETERS OF SIGN LANGUAGE (CONT.) PAGE 2 OF 2 The Parameters of Sign Language (MOPS) represents the building blocks of ASL. In spoken phonemes are the smallest units of sounds that can distinguish one word from another. For example: 1. In English, the words ban and pan differ only in their initial sound: ban begins with /b/ and pan begins with /p/. 2. ban and bin differ only in their vowels: /æ/ and /I/ (æ is the phonetic symbol for a, I is the phonetic symbol for i). 3. pit and pin differ only in their final sounds: pit ends with /t/ and pin ends with /n/. four M. O. P. S. parameters are the smallest units that can distinguish one sign from another. There are and shape (handshape). For example: CHAIR and SIT differ in movement: CHAIR is produced using a short repeated/double motion, SIT is produced with a continuous motion. EMPTY and RUDE differ in palm orientation: palm down for EMPTY, palm up for RUDE. FATHER and MOTHER differ in placement: FATHER is produced on the forehead, MOTHER is produced on the chin DRY and FARM differ in handshape: DRY is produced with an ‘x’ handshape and FARM is produced with a ‘5’ handshape. ffer in only in one parameter. Look closely and decide differences can help you produce signs more accurately and retain them better. 14 UNIVERSAL PACKET ASU ASL BASIC ASL STRUCTURE: TOPICALIZATION (TOPIC-COMMENT)
The basic sentence structure of ASL which something is said. “Comment” is signed first. Nonbo -VerbTopicalization occurs -comment ASL SENTENCE TYPES
English uses intonation patterns and sentence structure (word order) to form sentence types. In -manual (face and body). YES-NO QUESTION The grammatical signals of yesresponse to this type of question should be either yes or no. WH- QUESTION The grammatical signals of this question include a brow squint and often a head tilt. These questions may include signs such as W HO, WHAT, WHERE, WHEN, WHY, HOW -MUCH, HOW -MANY, HOW, and other signs that solicit specific information. NEGATIVE STATEMENT The non-manual behaviors of the negative signal include a side-to-side headshake and often a NEGATIVE YES-NO QUESTION The non-manual behaviors associated with this type of sentence structure combines those of the negative statement and the ‘yes-no’ question. They include raised and slightly furrowed 15 UNIVERSAL PACKET ASU ASL CONDITIONAL This sentence type has two basic parts: the first states a condition (IF, SUPPOSE, WHAT IF) condition is always signed first; the consequences or result follows. The non-manual behaviors that accompany the condition portion are: a brow raise (usually with the head tilted in one direction and sometimes the body leans slightly in one direction). s a slight pause and a body shift. The non-manual behaviors shift to those behaviors that are appropriate for the result -F preceding the condition. RHETORICAL QUESTION Rhetorical questions are questions that the signer does not expect the addressee to answer. A n and follows it with an answer. The non-manual behaviors for this sentence type include raising the brow and tilting the head. These behaviors closely resemble those of the ‘yes-no’ question but usually include a ‘wh’ sign. English examples: “So I had t Rhetorical questions are used in narrative stories or to draw special attention to something. WARNING: Do not overuse rhetorical questions! Observe skilled signers using them first. PRACTICE The English sentences below can be signed using different sentence types. Remember they are signed sible way of signing each sentence. Remember that there are often several ways to sign the same thing. 1. Is that a green car? 2. 3. I love my car! 4. What if the car breaks down? I won’t buy it! I can’t buy a car because it’s too small! 6. Why are you buying such an old car? 7. Is your car new?
16 a Ford. _________t ______q THAT CAR GREEN __________t OH THAT CAR NOT F-O-R-D. _______t MY CAR LOVE! _______________________if ___n THAT CAR BREAK-DOWN BUY ________t __rhq THAT CAR BUY CAN’T WHY SMALL! _________t _whq OLD CAR BUY WHY __________t ____q YOUR CAR NEW UNIVERSAL PACKET ASU ASL DEFINITIONS IN COMMUNICATION
ASL American Sign Language Language. PSE Pidgin Signed English: A combination of ASL and English signs in varying degrees dependent upon the situation. PSE is used often amongst all signers. Signing Exact English or Signing Essential English: English represented components of LOVE CASE SIGNED ENGLISH MCE SIMCOM TC Manually Coded English: Overall category encompassing English sign Simultaneous Communication: Combining signs with spoken words; can use any sign system except ASL. Total Communication TC is GESTURE HOME SIGNS (i.e. a family). They do not follow a traditional language structure. CUED SPEECH TTY, TDD, TT Telephone (TT) preferred acronym)
17 SEE Linguistics Of Visual English: Another system of signed English; Conceptually Accurate Signed English: Uses conceptually accurate ASL and English signs in English order. Freely used movements that take on meaning (not language). Uses specialized handshapes to augment speech reading. These handshapes are meant to clarify differences between letters that look similar on the lips. UNIVERSAL PACKET ASU ASL HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE
neral idea of when each of the following events occurred. Charles Michael Abbe de l’Eppée establishes world’s first free school for the deaf 1817 1864 1867 1911 Connecticut Asylum for the Education and Instruction of Deaf and Dumb Persons opens in Connecticut. It is the first permanent school for the deaf in America. Gallaudet College is founded in Washington D.C. It is the first college in the world dedicated to the education of deaf people. (It later becomes Gallaudet University) Lexington School for the Deaf opens in New York City. It is the first purely oral school for the deaf in America. Arizona State School for the Deaf & Blind opens in Tuc residential school for the deaf in Arizona. 1964 1971 causing their children to be born deaf. Subsequent development of an effective vaccination ends the outbreak and virtually eliminates the disease in the US. The Total Communication philosophy develops encouraging the use of all available methods of communication. It emphasizes communication over method. caption decoders to the public opening the must have a built- 1980 1988 1992 Deaf President Now! uprising at Gallaudet University. Students demand that the newly selected hearing president be replaced by a Deaf president. Americans With Disabilities Act (ADA) takes effect affording many rights to deaf and hearing impaired individuals in the U.S. 18 UNIVERSAL PACKET ASU ASL THE SIGN LANGUAGE CONTINUUM
The Sign Language Continuum represents the relationship between English and American Sign Language. English and ASL are the only true languages depicted on this continuum. ENGLISH
ORALISM CUED SPEECH ROCHESTER MCE SEE CASE PSE ASL ORALISM CUED SPEECH ROCHESTER MCE Uses speech and lipreading in English format. No manual communication. Uses simple handshapes to enhance the user's ability to discern like sounds when lipreading. Uses fingerspelling for nearly all communication with addition of signs for basic words such as and is but. Manually Coded English: Use signs that encode the English language other forms of conceptually inaccurate manual communication. SEE CASE PSE Signing Exact English: Use English represented with signs where one Conceptually Accurate Signed English: Use ASL signs in an English structure. Pigin Signed English: A combination of ASL and English often used by native signers when communicating with non-native signers. PSE arose from the need for hearing and deaf people to communicate. Although the language continuum is shown here on a horizontal bar, it can be displayed in a variety formats. It is often depicted on an arc with ASL and English on either end.
19 UNIVERSAL PACKET ASU ASL UNDERSTANDING THE DEAF COMMUNITY gories: Clinical/Pathological and then focuses on how deaf people differ from that norm; usually centered on the audiological status of an individual and how it can be "fixed" Cultural who happen to be deaf; minimal concern for the actual amount of hearing loss How does one become a member of the Deaf Community? The key to being a member of the Deaf Community is attitudinal deafness. Attitudinal deafness refers to the acceptance of the language and values of the Deaf Community. Attitudinal deafness is strongly associated with the cultural perspective described above. There are 4 primary avenues into the traditional Deaf Community. Those that fit into one or more of these categories are more likely to be members of the Deaf Community: AUDIOLOGICAL POLITICAL Those who have an Those who have actual hearing loss; by power to influence matters that affects category excludes all the Deaf Community hearing people national level. LINGUISTIC SOCIAL Those who understand Those who and use ASL; the comfortably greater one's level of participate in social activities with members of the Deaf Community Only Deaf people can become “core members” of the Deaf Community. The diagram below is a representation of the Deaf Community. You can see how attitude can be the factor that prevents one from moving closer to the core of the Deaf Community.
AUDIOLOGICAL POLITICAL SOCIAL CORE LINGUISTIC 20 UNIVERSAL PACKET ASU ASL IN WHAT LANGUAGE DO DEAF PEOPLE THINK?
Dear Cecil: In what language do deaf people think? I think in English, because that's what I speak. But since deaf people cannot hear, they can't learn how to speak a language. Nevertheless, they must think in some language. Would they think in English if they use sign language and read English? How would they do that if they've never heard the words they are signing or reading pronounced? Or maybe they just see words in their head, instead of hearing themselves? --Cathy, Malvern, Pennsylvania (December, 2003) Cecil replies: You're on the right evelopmentally usual manner. But even those sightless from birth acquire language by ear without difficulty in inary lives. A congenitally deaf child isn't so communication may never progress beyond the rudiments. The language of the deaf is a vast topic that has filled lots of books--one of the best is Seeing Voices: A Journey Into the World of the Deaf by Oliver Sacks (1989). All I can do in this venue is sketch out a few basic propositions: The folks at issue here are both (a) profoundly and (b) prelingually deaf. If you don't become manageable. You think in whatever spoken language you've learned. Given some commonsense ormally intellectually. Depending on circumstances you may be able to speak and lip-read. such people were called deafor much later development.
(continued) 21 UNIVERSAL PACKET ASU ASL The critical age range seems to be 21 to 36 months. During this period children pick up the far more difficul is normal. e that it's an invented form of communication like Esperanto or Morse code. It's not. It's an independent the next. It bears no relationship to English and in some ways is more similar to Chinese--a Sign can be acquired effortlessly in early childhood-hearing children of deaf parents). Those who do so use it as fluently as most Americans speak nd actively acquire and process knowledge-ning. Sacks and many deaf folk think this has been a disaster for deaf people. The answer to your question is now obvious. In what language do the profoundly deaf think? earned it in infancy. The hearing can have only a general idea what this is like--the gulf between spoken and the brain of a native deaf signer is organized most of whom hear normal n the --CECIL ADAMS Cecil Adams is a syndicated writer whose column, “The Straight Dope,” appears in over 30 newspapers in the U.S. and Canada. Considered the world’s most intelligent human being, he answers questions from readers on an extensive range of topics. He is also the author of five fascinating books based on “The Straight Dope” concept which are widely available. For more interesting facts and details about Cecil, check out www.straightdope.com. ©2003 Chicago Reader Inc. This article has been reprinted with permission from the editor. 22 UNIVERSAL PACKET ASU ASL What’s The Difference Between A Signer And An Interpreter? Katherine Garner (Visalia, CA) More and more people are learning to sign! We deaf people are really grateful for that. There also some serious problems have arisen. The first problem is that there is a widespread tendency to overestimate one’s signing skills. The reason that people often think that signing is a fairly ny foreign tongue. Imagine an agency making preparations for a visit from a person from China. Would they ask one of their employees who took a couple of Chinese classes in college to be the official an interpreter. Even if som has practiced and perfected the art of translating ideas from one language to another. situations employees who have taken a couple of sign language classes and then “hire” said person to be the “interpreter” for the ch situations with only a minimum understanding (if any) as to what happened. It is tragic when deaf people incorrectly blame themselves for equest that a professional interpreter be have funds allocated in our budget for paying interpreters”. What the agency doesn’t realize is l more pleasant for all concerned. since the interpreter does not have a vested interest in the encounter. The interpreter is bound by strictly kept confidential. the new openness and wil also anxious to see more understanding regarding the appropriate use of trained interpreters.
23 UNIVERSAL PACKET ASU ASL Who Is A Signer? Who Is An Interpreter? By Lily Corbett
Last spring I spoke to an asked if she could tell the class something. She very proudly stood up and told the students that she was concluded that anyone could be an interpreter for the deaf after acquiring basic skills in Sign Language. I was disturbed by the misleading information but decided not to say anything because I felt rather guilty for not clarifying the misunderstanding to the class. Apparently there is a universal lack of understanding e A “signer” is one who is acquiring or has acquired basic skills in Sign Language to communicate with An by RID for various reasons. I strongly feel that those who wish to interpret for deaf people on a is a any training in interpreting. However true in a -in” interpreter and is a very special Learning Sign Language can and often does lead a person to become an interpreter. It is always a in interpreting and becomes an interpreter after meeting the requirements of the program and then becomes certified by RID for professional purposes. the use of terminology in specific settings such as le interpreting skills; that is developing skills in receptive sign language and fingerspelling. Today there is much attention focused in the interpreter training programs on interpreting for deaf persons English into conceptual Sign Language. This method is called AMESLAN (American Sign Language). communicate in Ameslan. There is a small number of interpreters in the United States who are very competent in Lily Corbett The Virginia Council for the Deaf Vol. 4 Number 1 – Spring 1977
24 UNIVERSAL PACKET ASU ASL NAME SIGNS
usually assigned by other De are two kinds of name signs: descriptive and arbitrary. Descriptive name signs usually reflect a person’s appearance or behavior. Arbitrary name signs are usually the initial of a person’s first the body. There are rules that apply to what can and cannot be a valid name sign. N AME S IGN E XAMPLES Descriptive The name sign of a man named John was the Bthe only boy who always wore shortArbitrary y named him David but the “D For more information on name signs, see “The Arbitrary Name Sign System in American Sign Language” by Sam Supalla (in press, Sign Language Studies). 25 UNIVERSAL PACKET ASU ASL SPECIAL NUMBERS: SPECIAL MOVEMENTS FOR 67-98
The numbers 67-98 are unique in their production forms. For the first set of numbers in which the first number (tens) is smaller movements should be applied: LEFT-HANDED SIGNERS LARGER number smaller number RIGHT-HANDED SIGNERS LARGER number smaller number Examples: 67, 68, 69, 78, 79, 89 For the second set of numbers in which the first number (tens) is larger than the second number LEFT-HANDED SIGNERS LARGER number smaller number RIGHT-HANDED SIGNERS LARGER number smaller number Examples: 76, 86, 87, 96, 97, 98 26 UNIVERSAL PACKET ASU ASL Recording Your Projects
Several of your ASL courses will use digital media to collect student video samples instead of our own. You have several options when it comes to recording yourself. Presentations will only be accepted in the following formats: MiniDV tape (3”x2” cartridge), DVD movie, or a digital media file submitted on a burned CD. On the due date, you should be turning in a little tape or a shiny disc.
The following formats are NOT acceptable: VHS, VHS-C, SVHS, HI-8. Digital-8, Beta, VHS adapters, or Scotch. You can also use a regular digital camera (as opposed to a video camera). You will need a digital camera that can create video with the following characteristics: At least 20 fps (frames per second) Video size of at least 320x240 (640x480 or more is best) (needs enough memory!) If you are unsure if the your instructor. FILMING TIPS (aka “requirements”)
Use a tripod or place the camera on a fixed surface. Don’t Film outside in the morning or late afternoon with the sun behind the camera. If you film inside make sure there is plenty of light. This usually means having signer. You want the entire front of the signer lit up as much as possible (without causing them to squint). Never allow backlighting! – even if the blinds are closed! There should be no light sources behind the signer. etc.). Never wear a lot of white. NO HATS. NO SUNGLASSES (even outside). Sh
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- Spring '08