historyofenglish

historyofenglish - HISTORY OF ENGLISH See also Semantic...

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34 1 HISTORY OF ENGLISH See also “Semantic Gaps and Sources of New Words” by Don L. F. Nilsen and Alleen Pace Nilsen
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34 2 HISTORY OF ENGLISH BEFORE ENGLAND
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34 3 FOUR MAJOR LANGUAGE FAMILIES SINO-TIBETAN e.g. Mandarin Chinese FINNO-UGRIC e.g. Finnish, Hungarian, Estonian, etc. HAMIDO-SEMITIC e.g. Arabic and Hebrew INDO-EUROPEAN e.g. Romance, Germanic, Balto-Slavic, Indo-Iranian, and Celtic NOTE: GIVE OTHER LANGUAGE FAMILIES PLUS EXAMPLES:
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34 4 INDO-EUROPEAN LANGUAGES ROMANCE French, Italian, Portuguese, Romanian, Spanish BALTO-SLAVIC Bulgarian, Croation, Czech, Macedonian, *Old Church Slavonic, Polish, Russian, Serbian INDO-IRANIAN *Avestan, Bengali, Gujarati, Hindi, Pashto, Persian, Urdu, CELTIC Breton, Cornish, Irish, Scots Gaelic, Welsh GERMANIC Afrikaans, Danish, Dutch, English , Flemish, German, Icelandic, Norwegian, Swedish, Yiddish
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34 5 *PROTO INDO EUROPEAN LANGUAGES (Fromkin Rodman Hyams 489)
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34 6 SOUND CHANGES BEFORE ENGLISH ABLAUT UMLAUT FIRST CONSONANT SHIFT (GRIMM’S LAW) SECOND CONSONANT SHIFT (TO DISTINGUISH HOCH DEUTCH FROM PLATT DEUTCH)
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34 7 ABLAUT begin-began-begun break-broke-broken choose-chose-chosen come-came-come eat-ate-eaten fly-flew-flown sing-sang-sung
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34 8 UMLAUT child-children goose-geese man-men mouse-mice woman-women
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34 9 GRIMM’S LAW /bh/, /dh/, /gh/ => /b/, /d/, /g/ /b/, /d/, /g/ => /p/, /t/, /k/ /p/, /t/, /k/ => /f/, /Θ/, /h/ (Fromkin Rodman Hyams 464, 479)
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34 10 GRIMM’S LAW (Herndon 413)
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34 11 GRIMM'S LAW 1 st GERMANIC CONSONANT SHIFT /b/ => /p/: bursa-purse, labial-lip /d/ => /t/: decade-ten, dozen-twelve, dent-tooth, duet-two /g/ => /k/: agriculture-acre /p/ => /f/: pedestal-footnote, padre-father, plate-flat, pyre-fire /t/ => /θ/: tricycle-three /k/ => /h/: courage-hearty, corn-horn, canis-hound (Fromkin Rodman Hyams 481)
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34 12 VERNER’S LAW “When the preceding vowel was unstressed, /f/ / θ / /x/ underwent a further change to / b/ /d/ /g/.” (Fromkin Rodman Hyams 481)
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34 13 2 nd GERMANIC CONSONANT SHIFT: HIGH/LOW GERMAN penny-pfennig too-zu water-wasser
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34 14 INDO-EUROPEAN NUMBERS ENGLISH: one two three four five SPANISH: uno dos tres quatro cinqo GERMAN: eins zwei drei fier funf FRENCH: un deux trois quatre cinque PERSIAN: yek do seh chahar panj (FRH 488)
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34 15 HISTORY OF ENGLISH IN ENGLAND
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34 16 499-1066: Old English 1066-1500: Middle English 1500-Today: Modern English 499: Saxons invade Britain 6 th Century: Religious Literature 8 th Century: Beowulf 1066: Norman Conquest 1387: Canterbury Tales 1476: Caxton’s Printing Press 1500: Great Vowel Shift 1564: Birth of Shakespeare (Fromkin Rodman Hyams 462)
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34 17 GREAT ENGLISH VOWEL SHIFT (Fromkin Rodman Hyams 466)
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34 18 SOUND CHANGES IN ENGLISH 1. Great English Vowel Shift 1. Intervocalic Fricatives become contrastive (phonemic)
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This note was uploaded on 03/01/2011 for the course ENG 312 taught by Professor Nilsen during the Spring '10 term at ASU.

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historyofenglish - HISTORY OF ENGLISH See also Semantic...

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