varies

varies - VARIATION ANALYSIS See also “Prototype Theory”...

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Unformatted text preview: VARIATION ANALYSIS See also “Prototype Theory” by Don L. F. Nilsen and Alleen Pace Nilsen 2 1 !BASIC ASSUMPTIONS • There are various ways of saying the same thing and saliences differ • These are affected by S.P.E.A.K.I.N.G. or the V.A.R.I.E.S. model 2 2 !!S.P.E.A.K.I.N.G. MODEL • • • • • • • • S-Setting P-Participants E-Ends A-Act Sequence K-Key Tone or Mood I-Instrumentalities (writing vs. speech) N-Norms (expectations of the situation) G-Genre (e-mail, chant, research paper) (Gumpers and Hymes 35-71) 2 3 !!!V.A.R.I.E.S. MODEL by Don and Alleen Nilsen • V-VOCATIONAL JARGON – Computer Guys, Doctors, Lawyers, Linguists, Teachers • A-AGE-RELATED LANGUAGE – Children, Teenagers, Old People – Old English, Middle English, (Early) Modern English • R-REGIONAL LANGUAGE – California, Canada, New York, South • I-INFORMAL OR FORMAL LANGUAGE – Casual Acquaintances, Lovers, Friends, Relatives • E-ETHNIC LANGUAGE – Blacks, Indians, Jews, Mexicans • S-SEX-RELATED LANGUAGE – Males, Females, Lesbians, Gays 2 4 Assaulted Peanut: A Pun 2 5 Raining Cats and Dogs: A Metaphor 2 6 References # 1: Clark, Virginia, Paul Eschholz, and Alfred Rosa. Language: Readings Clark, in Language and Culture, 2nd Edition. New York, NY: St. Martin’s in New Press, 1998. Press, Eschholz, Paul, Alfred Rosa, and Virginia Clark. Language Eschholz, Awareness, 10th Edition. New York, NY: Bedford/St. Martin’s, 2009. Awareness, th Fromkin, Victoria, Robert Rodman, and Nina Hyams. An Introduction to Language, 8th Edition. Boston, MA: Thomson Wadsworth, 2007. Gumpers, John, and Dell Hymes, eds. “Models of the Interaction of Language and Social Life.” Directions in Sociolinguistics: The Ethnography of Communication. New York, NY: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1972, 35-71. Marckwardt, Albert H., and J. L. Dillard. “Social and Regional Marckwardt, Variation” (Clark [1998]: 277-291). Variation” 2 7 References # 2: Mey, Jacob L. Pragmatics: An Introduction, 2nd Edition. Oxford, England, 2001. Nilsen, Alleen Pace, and Don L. F. Nilsen. "Just How Ethnic is Nilsen, Ethnic Humor." Canadian Ethnic Studies/Études Ethniques au Canada. 38.1 (2006): 1-9. au Nilsen, Alleen Pace, and Don L. F. Nilsen. Encyclopedia of 20th Century American Humor. Westport, CT: Greenwood, 2000. Raskin, Victor, ed. The Primer of Humor Research. New York, Raskin, The New NY: Mouton de Gruyter, 2008. NY: Schiffrin, Deborah. Approaches to Discourse. Malden, MA: Schiffrin, Approaches Malden, Blackwell, 1994. Blackwell, 2 8 ...
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This note was uploaded on 03/01/2011 for the course ENG 312 taught by Professor Nilsen during the Spring '10 term at ASU.

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