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Overview of Today’s Special Education At the end of this chapter you should At be able to: be Describe Describe the characteristics of special education education Identify the disability categories Describe various stakeholders in special Describe education education Identify the basic components of IDEA Summarize laws that impact the lives of Summarize individuals with disabilities individuals 1-1 Who are the Student served in Special Education? Special Gender: 1.5 M to 1 F, 3.5 M to 1 F Higher in certain categories Due to: physiological/ maturational differences educational bias educational assessment bias assessment Children and young adults ages birth – 21 Children with identified disabilities with Profile of Special Education Profile Slightly Slightly over 6 million students Almost 272,454 infants and toddlers Almost Almost 680,142 preschool children About 9% of school’s enrolled About population population Increasing at a faster rate than nondisabled population 1-4 Labeling Allows Allows students with disabilities to receive services receive Labels may be stigmatizing or result Labels in discrimination in View children by their abilities not View disabilities disabilities Use person-first language 1-7 Court Cases Mills v. Washington, DC, Board of Education and Pennsylvania Association for Retarded Citizens [PARC] v. Commonwealth of Pennsylvania [PARC] The courts ordered school districts to: Provide a free, appropriate public education to all Provide students with disabilities students Educate students with disabilities in the same Educate schools and basically same programs as students without disabilities without Put into place procedural safeguards so that Put students can challenge schools that do not live up to the court’s orders. to These decisions led to families advocating for a These federal law to guarantee rights federal
1-10 Introduction to Individuals with Disabilities Education Act - IDEA IDEA (originally called Education of All Handicapped Students Act or PL 94-142) was first enacted in 1975 first Original intent: Open schools to all students Original with disabilities and ensure they had a chance to benefit from special education chance Current focus: Meet student goals and Current outcomes outcomes 1-11 Federal Funding of IDEA Congress Congress grants federal money to state and local educational agencies state The federal money is insufficient to provide all services provide States and local school districts must States provide their own funds Special education services are Special expensive ($10,000 - $20,000) expensive 1-29 Students’ Eligibility Students’ Eligibility is based on need Special education services are Special provided wherever there are students with disabilities students Classrooms Classrooms Students’ homes Students’ Hospitals and institutions Hospitals Other settings 1-12 Students’ Eligibility Eligibility: Two-part standard Categorical – The student must have a disability Functional – The student must need specially designed The services services IDEA provides services from birth to age 21 (historically was from ages 6 to 18) (historically IDEA has two sections: Part B serves children ages 3 to 21 Part Part C serves students ages birth to 2 Part 1-14 Students’ Eligibility Students’ Part B Part 12 disability categories under which students 12 may be served may Part C benefits children under age 3 who: Need early intervention services because of Need developmental delays developmental Have a diagnosed physical or mental condition Have that has a high probability of resulting in a developmental delay developmental States have the option of serving at-risk States children children 1-15 IDEA Disability Categories IDEA Specific learning Specific disabilities disabilities Emotional disturbance Mental retardation Multiple disabilities Deaf-blindness Autism Other health Other impairments impairments Orthopedic Orthopedic impairments impairments Traumatic brain injury Speech or language Speech impairments impairments Hearing impairments Visual impairments 1-16 Principles of IDEA
Zero Reject Nondiscriminatory Evaluation Appropriate Education
Individualized Education Plan Components IEP Process Least Restrictive Environment (LRE) Procedural Due Process Parent and Student Participation Zero Reject Prohibits schools from excluding any student Prohibits with a disability from receiving a free, appropriate public education public Applies to Educability Expulsion and discipline “no-cessation,” “ten-day,” “change of no-cessation,” placement,” “manifestation determination,” “FBA/BIP,” “stay-put,” and “45-day” rules “FBA/BIP,” 1-18 Nondiscriminatory Evaluation: Two Nondiscriminatory Purposes Purposes Does the student have a disability? What kind of special education and related What services does the student require? services Assessment Screening Prereferral Referral Nondiscriminatory Requirements evaluation 1-19 Nondiscriminatory Evaluation: A Funneling Process Process 1-20 Appropriate Education IEP Components Review Evaluations and Current Levels of Performance Develop Measurable Goals, Determine Placement and Related Services Address Accommodations and Special Factors Explanation of the extent of time not in general education Conclude the meeting Appropriate Education IEP Process Multi-disciplinary Team Focus on shared resources, priorities and concern Share vision and expectations Annual Review without gaps in service Plan developed in writing by team to address students needs and strengths IEPs IEPs IFSPs Document for students Document 3–21 3–21 Need to be in effect at Need the beginning of the school year school Reviewed and revised Reviewed at least once a year at Document for children Document ages 0–2 ages Describes the services Describes both the child and family will receive family Should be developed Should within 45 days of referral and reviewed at 6-month intervals and every year thereafter every 1-22 Individualized Education Program (IEP) (IEP) Developed Developed after a children has been identified with a disability and found to be in need of services. in Legal document of the child’s educational Legal program program Related Services Audiology Audiology Counseling services Early identification Family training, counseling, Family and home visits and Health services Medical services Nursing services Nutrition services Occupational therapy Orientation and mobility Orientation services services Parent counseling and Parent training training Physical therapy Psychological services Recreation and therapeutic Recreation recreation recreation Rehabilitative counseling Rehabilitative services services School health services Service coordination services Social work services in Social schools schools Speech pathology and Speech speech-language pathology speech-language Transportation and related Transportation costs costs Assistive technology and Assistive services services 1-13 Least Restrictive Environment Education Education with students who do not have disabilities disabilities For early childhood, IDEA favors the “natural For environment” environment” The rule: A presumption of inclusion Access to the general education curriculum Setting aside the presumption The continuum of services Extracurricular and nonacademic inclusion 1-25 Procedural Due Process
Makes schools and parents accountable to each other Mediation The first step available The Not required by IDEA but strongly encouraged Due process hearing An administrative, quasi-judicial hearing similar to a An mini-trial mini-trial Conducted before a person who will make a qualified, Conducted objective decision objective Parents and schools are entitled to have lawyers Parents present present Required by IDEA to be an available process 1-26 Parent Rights Parent Parents are members of teams Parents receive notification before Parents schools do anything about their child’s education education Parents have access to school records Parents concerning student concerning At age of majority IDEA rights transfer At to the student to 1-27 Standards-Based Reform
For many years: States and local education agencies did States not have a clear curriculum for all students students Teachers thought that students with Teachers disabilities should neither participate in nor be expected to master the general curriculum - “teach to the middle” curriculum
2-4 Standards-Based Reform Standards-Based IDEA IDEA requires that students with disabilities participate AND show progress in the general curriculum progress The No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB) The overcomes low expectations by: overcomes Requiring states to establish content Requiring and performance standards for ALL students students 2-5 Six Principles of No Child Left Behind Six Accountability for results School safety Parental choice Teacher quality Scientifically-based methods of teaching Local flexibility 1-30 Standards-Based Reform
Academic Academic Content Standards Define the knowledge, skills, and understanding that ALL students should attain in academic subjects subjects Student Achievement Standards Define the level of achievement that students Define should meet in order to demonstrate proficiency in a subject in States may establish alternative achievement States standards For students with significant cognitive disabilities Must still align with academic content standards 2-6 Making Accommodations in Making Assessments Assessments IEP IEP teams must consider any accommodations needed in the assessment process process Accommodations that do not affect the Accommodations content of the assessment include: content Changes in presenting information Changes in responding Changes in timing Changes in setting
2-8 Making Accommodations in Making Assessments Assessments Alternative Assessments Determined by the IEP team For students who cannot perform on For grade-level grade-level Aligned with the state subject area Aligned standards standards Serve the same purposes as the standard Serve assessments: assessments: Accountability Decision-making 2-9 How does the general education curriculum benefit students with disabilities? Student from racial or ethnically diverse Student background are disproportionately represented in special education due to represented disadvantages in the referral and screening processes. screening Data suggests that assessments also Data provide disadvantages to certain groups. groups. The research gives evidence that The students from European or Asian backgrounds scored higher than African
2-10 Debate: In Favor of Standards-Based Debate: Reform Reform Comparable standards will result in Comparable higher expectations and higher levels of student achievement student By being part of the standards process, By students with disabilities will also be part of the education reform movement part 2-11 Against Standards-Based Reform Holding Holding students to the same standards can conflict with IEP goals goals Students will become frustrated, Students discouraged, and drop out of school schoo Pressure on teachers and greater Pressure reluctance to accept students with IEPs with
2-12 Other Federal Laws: Entitlements and Other Antidiscrimination Antidiscrimination
Section 504 with Disabilities Act (ADA) (ADA Applies to any program or activity receiving federal funds federal Applies to other programs or activities available to the public that do NOT receive federal funds to Americans Americans 1-32 Goals of Special Education Equality of opportunity Full participation Independent living Economic self-sufficiency Measured by: High school completion rates Post school employment rates Overall satisfaction with life 1-33 ...
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This note was uploaded on 03/01/2011 for the course SPE 222 taught by Professor Bal during the Spring '08 term at ASU.
- Spring '08