Chapter 4 Lecture Notes

Chapter 4 Lecture Notes - Risk Analysis Environmental...

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Click to edit Master subtitle style 3/2/11 Risk Analysis, Environmental Health Hazards and Toxicology
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3/2/11 A Perspective on Risks Human health has improved Risk Probability of harm occurring in certain circumstances Part of daily life Must understand nature and size of risk
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3/2/11 Probabilities of Risk Probability of 1 = Certain to occur Probability of 0 = Certain not to occur
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3/2/11 Risk Assessment Quantifying risks of an action Four steps 1) Hazard identification Will exposure cause effects? 2) Dose-response assessment Relationship between amount of exposure and effects? 3) Exposure assessment How much, often and long are humans exposed? 4) Risk characterization
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3/2/11 Choose Your Risk For some there are no choices What risks do “we” worry about most? Why do we do it anyway?
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3/2/11 Environmental Health Hazards We are exposed to many chemicals Toxicology Study of toxicants Mechanisms of toxicity Prevent toxic effects Acute toxicity Chronic toxicity
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3/2/11 More Health Hazards Noninfectious Not transmitted from one person to another Result of chronic toxicity Infectious Transmissible between people Contaminated food and water
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3/2/11 Polluted Water Water is tested for presence of sewage Pathogen: disease causing agent Fecal coliform test E. coli Filter water Let bacteria grow Count bacterial colonies Disease from water
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3/2/11 Environmental Change & Disease Links between human health and environmental change Changing a natural environment How do these cause more disease? Social factors Travel
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3/2/11 Malaria Transmitted by Anopheles mosquitoes Cut down forests = more pools of water = more mosquitoes Peru, Bangladesh, Amazon Climate change is also a factor Dr. Rudi Thompson
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3/2/11 Malaria & New Technology Satellite images Chiapas, Mexico Images show areas at risk http://www.Nothingbutnets.com
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3/2/11 Toxicants In The Environment DDT (banned 1972) Persistence in environment Stored in fatty tissues Bioaccumulation: builds up in organisms Biological magnification: increases as it passes up the food chain
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3/2/11 Biomagnification
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3/2/11 Toxicant Mobility Chemicals move throughout the environment
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