esas0102__LayOfLand-stu

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Unformatted text preview: Forms
of
the
Land,
the
flow
of
water,
the
occurrence
of
what
us’d
to
be
called
Miracles, all
are
Text,
to
be
attended
to,
manipulated,
read,
remember’d. From
the
novel
Mason
&
Dixon
(Pynchon,
1997) The
lay
of
the
land EARTH
SCIENCE
in ARIZONA
and
the SOUTHWEST Relief
map
of
the
Southwest
and
environs




(USGS) The
lay
of
the
land is
an
idiom
that
refers
to
patterns
in
the
surface
of
the
geosphere. It
is
also
known
as
topography:
the
general
configuration
of
a
land
surface, which
can
be
described
in
terms
of
three
quantities: Slope
 steepness:
 in
degrees or
fractions,
 from
gentle
 to
steep Relief:
relative
difference
in
elevation; “rugged”
=
high
relief “subdued”
=
low
relief Elevation:
height
above mean
sea
level Surface (Depth
below
sea
level for
underwater
surfaces) Subsurface (image
from
Reynolds,
Johnson,
Kelly,
Morin,
&
Carter,
2010) The
lay of
the
land 2 Explore
the
topography
of
the
Southwest. Relief
map
of
the
Southwest
and
environs




(USGS) How
do
elevation
and
relief
vary
(high—moderate—low)
across
the
region
? Distinguish
different
areas
according
to
their
relative
elevation
and
relief. The
lay of
the
land 3 L
 T The
Southwest
is
subdivided
into
topographically
distinct
provinces. Nor the rn Basin
 and Range What
is
the
topography
of
the
Southwest? Sou thern Ro ck y Mo unta ins Tr a on (R í o 
 G r ns Color ad o Plateau iti 
Z on a n d e
 R i ft) South ern Basi n
 an d Ran ge Relief
map
of
the
Southwest
and
environs




(USGS) e Gr eat Pl ains Boundaries
are
approximate. Let’s
explore
the
basic
characteristics
of
each
province. The
lay of
the
land 4 (Southern)
Basin
and
Range
Province Range Basin Sierra
Estrella,
Basin
and
Range,
Gila
River
Indian
Community,
Arizona
 (S.
Semken) This
province
is
characterized
by
low
elevation
and
low
to
moderate
relief. Rocky
ranges
alternate
with
basins
that
are
filled
with
sand
and
gravel
eroded
from
the
ranges. Surface
water
is
limited
to
through‐going
rivers
that
originate
in
other
provinces. Basin
ecosystems
are
mostly
deserts:
Sonoran,
Mojave,
Great
Basin,
and
Chihuahuan. Ranges
are
rocky
and
rugged. Sand
and
gravel
fill
desert
basins. The
lay of
the
land View
from

Big
Maria
Mountains
to
McCoy
Mountains,
Basin
and
Range,
near
Blythe,
California 5 (S.
Semken) The
Río
Grande
Rift,
a
long,
narrow
chain
of
range‐bounded
basins,
is
a northeastern
extension
of
the
Basin
and
Range
Province. CO Four NM Corners Santa
Fé Albuquerque Río
Grande NM CH NM El
Paso Ciudad
Juárez TX Sou thern Ba sin an d Ra nge Relief
map
of
the
Southwest
and
environs




(USGS) (NASA) The
lay of
the
land CH




TX R í o 
 Gr a n d e 
 Ri f t 6 Colorado
Plateau
Province Tsé
bii’
Ndzisgaii
(Diné,
“clearing
among
the
rocks”):
a.k.a.
Monument
Valley, Colorado
Plateau,
Navajo
Nation,
Arizona‐Utah
border
 (S.
Semken) This
province
is
characterized
by
high
elevation
but
low
relief
(plateau
=
broad,
elevated,
flat
area). Horizontal
rock
layers
and
scattered
volcanic
landforms
have
been
deeply
eroded
in
many
places. Ecosystems
are
mostly
semi‐arid
grasslands,
but
include
valley‐floor
deserts
and
high
mountain
forests. San
Juan
River
Canyon, Colorado
Plateau,
Utah (S.
Semken) Tsé
bit’á’í,
(Diné,
“rock
with
wings”):
a.k.a.
Ship
Rock, Colorado
Plateau,
Navajo
Nation,
New
Mexico (S.
Semken) Through‐going
rivers traverse
the
Plateau. The
lay of
the
land This
is
the
exhumed
“plumbing”
beneath
an
extinct
volcano. 7 The
Mogollon
Rim
is
the
southwest
edge
of
the
Colorado
Plateau. North
loomed
up
the
lofty,
steep
rim
of
the
Mogollon
Mesa, with
its
cliffs
of
yellow
and
red,
and
its
black
line
of
timber. Zane
Grey,
from
Tales
of
Lonely
Trails
(1922) The
famed
western
writer
had
a
cabin
beneath
the
Rim
and set
many
of
his
novels
in
the
area. Promontory
Point,
Mogollon
Rim,
east
of
Payson,
Arizona
 (S.
Semken) Flagstaff M Col or ado Pl ate au og ol lo Phoenix n
 Ri m White Mountains Relief
map
of
the
Southwest
and
environs




(USGS) The
lay of
the
land 8 Transition
Zone:
between
the
Basin
and
Range
and
Colorado
Plateau Mazatzal
Mountains,
Transition
Zone,
Arizona (A.
Levine) Fossil
Creek
Canyon,
Transition
Zone, looking
west
toward
Verde
Valley,
Arizona (S.
Semken) In
this
transitional
province,
elevation
is
intermediate
to
high,
relief
is
high,
and
slopes
are
steep. The
rugged
mountains
and
narrow
canyons
of
the
Transition
Zone
are
the
headwaters
areas
of
the Verde,
Salt,
and
Gila
Rivers
in
Arizona. Ecosystems
transition
considerably
with
increasing
elevation,
from
desert
scrublands
and
semi‐arid grasslands
to
mountain
forests
(I.e.,
the
Transition
Zone
is
a
major
ecotone). The
Four
Peaks
are part
of
the
Mazatzal
Range in
the
Transition
Zone. The
lay of
the
land 9 Southern
Rocky
Mountains
Province This
is
a
topographically
distinct
segment
of
the
great
Rocky
Mountains
belt. This
province
is
dominated
by
high,
rocky,
very
rugged
mountain
ranges: elevation
and
relief
are
high,
and
slopes
are
steep. These
mountains
are
the
headwaters
area
of
the
Colorado
River:
the largest
regional
river
system,
and
major
water
source
for
the
Southwest. Mountains
are
the world’s
water
towers. Daniel
Viviroli
et
al.
(2007) La
Plata
Mountains
and
upper
La
Plata
River,
Southern
Rocky
Mountains,
near
Durango,
Colorado
 The
lay of
the
land (S.
Semken) 10 Review
the
topography
of
the
Southwest
region. Nor the rn Basin
 and Range Sou thern Ro ck y Mo unta ins Tr a on (R í o 
 G r ns Color ad o Plateau iti 
Z on a n d e
 R i ft) South ern Basi n
 an d Ran ge Relief
map
of
the
Southwest
and
environs




(USGS) e Gr eat Pl ains Boundaries
are
approximate. The
lay of
the
land 11 L
 T How
much
do
climate
(air),
hydrology
(water),
and
ecology
(life) vary
among
the
topographic
provinces
of
the
Southwest? Let’s
explore
the
data. The
lay of
the
land Superstition
Mountains
after
a
winter
storm,
as
seen
from
the desert
floor
at
Gold
Canyon,
Arizona,
on
12
March
2006
 (S.
Semken) 12 Explore
variations
in
the
atmosphere:
Climatic
patterns
across
the
Southwest Do
these
patterns
correspond
to
regional
topography? Mean
maximum
annual
temperature, 1971-2000 Mean
annual
precipitation, 1971-2000 “hot”
 “warm”
 “cool” “arid” “semi‐arid”
 “sub‐humid” (PRISM
Climate
Group,
Oregon
State
University,
2006,
http://www.prismclimate.org) The
lay of
the
land 13 L
 T Explore
variations
in
the
hydrosphere:
Major
river
systems
in
the
Southwest How
are
these
drainage
patterns
influenced
by
regional
topography? Sea of Cortez The
lay of
the
land 14 L
 T In
the
arid
Southwest,
water
now
also
“flows
uphill
toward
money.” Central
Arizona
Project (Lamberton
et
al.,
2010) The
lay of
the
land (Central
Arizona
Project,
2010: 15 www.cap‐az.com/about‐cap/system‐map) Explore
variations
in
the
biosphere:
Ecoregions
of
the
Southwest Ecoregion
=
a
region
with
a
consistent
pattern
of
ecosystems. Major
ecoregions
of
the
Southwest
include: (Tarleton
State
Univ.) (U.S.
Forest
Service) Sage
and
grassland
(NB&R) Sonoran
desert
(Arizona) Ponderosa
forest
(Arizona) Mojave
desert
(Nevada) The
lay of
the
land Chihuahuan
desert
(New
Mexico) Piñon‐juniper
forest
(Arizona) 16 (Photos
by
S.
Semken
except
where
otherwise
noted.) Explore
variations
in
the
biosphere:
Ecoregions
of
the
Southwest Do
these
distribution
patterns
correspond
to
regional
topography? Semi‐arid Grasslands and
Sagebrush Mojave Desert Sonoran Desert Baja
California Desert Semi‐arid Grasslands Tropical
Dry Forests Mountain Forests
(P‐J (and
Ponderosa) Semi‐arid Grasslands Chihuahuan Desert (Commission
for
Environmental
Cooperation,
1997) The
lay of
the
land 17 L
 T Do
the
other
parts
of
the
Earth
system
in
the
Southwest
vary
regionally
with
topography? Across
the
Southwest,
climate,
hydrology,
and
ecology
vary
with
topography. Col or ado
 Pl ate au Tr a n Ba sit i on 
 Zo ne sin 
 an d
 R an ge Topography
rules
the Southwest,
especially in
comparison
to
less‐ rugged
regions; c.f.
Fonstad
et
al.
(2003) Mean
maximum
annual
temperature,
1971-2000 Earthscape:
Sierra
Madre
to
Colorado
Plateau
(NASA;
Dohrenwend,
2007).

 The
lay of
the
land (PRISM
Climate
Group,
Oregon
State
University,
2006,
 http://www.prismclimate.org) 18 Topography
also
rules
the
cultural
Southwest. (Map
courtesy
of
S.
Reynolds,
ASU
SESE) The
lay of
the
land 19 Hopi Topography
probably
influenced
where
and
how
the earlier
inhabitants
of
the
Southwest
region
lived. (RT
Computer
Graphics,
n.d.) Tohono O’odham (M.
Chiago) The
lay of
the
land 20 The
lay
of
the
land What
you
should
now
know •The
 Southwest
 is
 subdivided
 into topographically
 distinct
 provinces: Basin
 and
 Range,
 Transition
 Zone, Colorado
 Plateau,
 Southern
 Rocky Mountains,

and
Great
Plains. •Across
 the
 Southwest,
 climate, hydrology,
 and
 ecology
 vary
 with topography.
 
 Topography
 rules
 the Southwest! What
you
now
should
be
able
to
do •Distinguish
 the
 topographic
 provinces on
 any
 relief
 map
 or
 synoptic
 image
 of the
Southwest
region. •Broadly
 characterize
 each
 of
 the topographic
provinces
of
the
Southwest by
 its
 elevation,
 relief,
 slope
 steepness, climate,
surface
hydrology,
and
ecology. (NASA
GSFC,
2003) The
lay of
the
land Please
do
the
Lesson
Evaluation
at
the
end
of
your
LT, and
don’t
forget
the
Chore
before
next
lesson! 21 1.2



The
lay
of
the
land REFERENCES Sep‐10‐10 22 Ammer,
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Take
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Retrieved
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Pubiishing. ...
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