esas0503temp_MessWithClimate-stu

esas0503temp_MessWithClimate-stu -...

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Unformatted text preview: When
someone’s
life
passes
on
from
this
world, it
is
said
that
one’s
Breath
 first
travels
to
the
life
beyond… Later,
they
say,
one’s
Breath
 returns
as
a
cloud
in
the
sky to
hearten
the
Earth
with
its
moisture. Emory
Sekaquaptewa Wind The
warmth
of
the
spirit’s
breath Gathers
all
around
me Comforts
me
as
I
continue
my
journey Sharon
White I
am
the
daughter
of
Earth
and
Water And
the
nursling
of
the
Sky; I
pass
through
the
pores
of
the
ocean
and
shores; I
change,
but
I
cannot
die. Percy
Bysshe
Shelley Monsoon
storm
clouds
building over
the
Chuska
Mountains,
Colorado
Plateau,
Navajo
Nation, Arizona‐New
Mexico Messing
with
climate EARTH
SCIENCE
in ARIZONA
and
the SOUTHWEST involves
complex
interactions
among
many
components The
climate
system Grotzinger
et
al.
(2007) It
is
highly
dynamic
and
particularly
susceptible
to
human
impacts. Messing
with
climate 3 The
Sun
drives
the
climate
system,
which
maintains
Earth’s
energy
balance. The
Sun
transmits 324
W/m2

to the
surface
of
Earth. 0.06
W/m2 flows
out
of Earth’s
interior. Earth
must
radiate heat
enough
to balance
solar
input. Grotzinger
et
al.
(2007) Messing
with
climate 4 The
greenhouse
effect
helps
maintain
this
energy
balance. In
Earth’s
atmosphere, CO2
,
CH4
,
and
H2O
vapor are
among
the greenhouse
gas
species. Messing
with
climate 5 Earth
is
warmed by
33
°C Grotzinger
et
al.
(2007) Messing
with
climate 6 The
climate
system
involves
matter
flow as
well
as
energy
flow Grotzinger
et
al.
(2007) Messing
with
climate 7 Matter
flow
in
the
climate
system Sources 
→







Sinks Volcanic
outgassing Silicate
rock
weathering CaSiO3
+
CO2
(aq)
→
CaCO3
+
SiO2 CO2
sequestered
in
limestone Requires
liquid
water 



 Photosynthesis CO2
+
H2O
→
(CH2O)
+
O2 Grotzinger
et
al.
(2007) Messing
with
climate 8 Matter
flow
of
different
chemical
species
occurs
by
means
of
geochemical
cycles: e.g.,
the
carbon
cycle Grotzinger
et
al.
(2007) Messing
with
climate 9 Human
activity
perturbs
the
carbon
cycle Grotzinger
et
al.
(2007) Messing
with
climate 10 Human
activity
perturbs
the
carbon
cycle We
release 7.1
Gt
C
/
yr System
removes 3.8
Gt
C
/
yr 3.3
Gt
C
/
yr builds
up
in
atm Grotzinger
et
al.
(2007) Messing
with
climate 11 And
Earth
is
heating
up. Global
T
 tracks global
CO2
 concentration. The
increases are historically anomalous. Grotzinger
et
al.
(2007),
after
IPCC Messing
with
climate 12 Amplified
drought
and
desertification
in
the
Southwest? Near
Red
Mesa,
Colorado
Plateau,
Navajo
Nation,
Arizona Messing
with
climate 13 What
of
the
future? How
will
CO2
levels
change
in
the
future? Model
predictions for
future
global
T based
on
three scenarios
at
left. Press
et
al.
(2004) Messing
with
climate 14 The
problem
of
acid
rain Sulfur
is
present
in
fossil
fuels; notably
coal
(which
contains
pyrite
FeS2
and
organic
S
compounds). On
burning:
 S
+
O2

→ 
SO2
(acid
gas) NOx
from
vehicle
exhaust
and
industry
is
another
acid
gas. SO2
,
NOx CO2 H2SO4 HNO3 Normal
rain pH
~
5‐6 H2CO3 Acid
rain pH
~
3‐4 Messing
with
climate 15 Cretaceous‐Paleogene
Western
Interior
coals Lower
in
S
content
but also
mostly
lower
in
rank
(i.e.,
%
C) Pennsylvanian
Eastern
coals Higher
rank
but alsohigher
in
S
content Grotzinger
et
al.
(2007) Messing
with
climate 16 Acid
gases
carried
NE
from
high‐S
coal‐burning
plants on
Appalachian
Plateau;
Acid
rain
in
New
England
and
Canada Increased
acid
rain
in
SW
from lower‐S
coal‐burning
plants
there Intensification
prior
to 1990
Clean
Air
Act
amendments Grotzinger
et
al.
(2007) Messing
with
climate 17 Some
effects
of
acid
rain US
Geological
Survey Grotzinger
et
al.
(2007) Damage
to
forests
and
aquatic
ecology
(biosphere)
 Increased
weathering
and
corrosion (geosphere
and
cultural
landscapes) US
EPA Messing
with
climate 18 Human
activities
can
change
the
climate
system Grotzinger et al. (2007) Messing
with
climate 19 It
would
be
an
ancient
coyote
story
writ
large if
the
technology
human
beings
used
to
ensure
our
physical
and
material comfort
and
convenience
resulted
in
no
place
to
live
on
this
planet— an
ultimate
form
of
homelessness
that
resulted
in
our
extinction. Dan
Wildcat Messing
with
climate 20 ...
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