esas0702temp_CatastrophicSw-stu

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Unformatted text preview: The
catastrophic
Southwest! Dynamic
changes
to
the
landscape (U.S. Geological Survey, 2007) EARTH
SCIENCE
in ARIZONA
and
the SOUTHWEST The
Southwest:
volcanically
active
through
the
Cenozoic The
catastrophic Southwest
! (After
Wiewandt
&
Wilks,
2004) 2 Patterns
of
volcanism
in
the
Neogene
and
Quaternary
Periods < 16 Ma; most < 2 Ma < 6 Ma ~ 8 Ma < 4 Ma < 3 Ma < 4 Ma J em ez lin ea m en t 9 - 2 Ma < 5 ? Ma The
catastrophic Southwest
! 3 Why
the
Jemez
lineament?

A
“leaky
suture”
in
the
old
basement? Younger
rocks Basement (Press,
Siever,
Grotzinger,
&
Jordan,
2004) The
catastrophic Southwest
! (Karlstrom
et
al.,
2002) 4 (K. Dueker) The
catastrophic Southwest
! 5 Jemez
volcanic
field
/
Valles
Caldera Tewa
Group
ignimbrites
(e.g., Bandelier
Tuff) Caldera
formation 1.78
Ma
‐
200
ka Cerros
del
Río
and related
basalts 5
‐
2
Ma Keres
Group
rhyolites 13
‐
5
Ma Río 
Gra nde Santa Fé Early
alkalic
basalts 16.5
‐
7?
Ma The
catastrophic Southwest
! (NASA
false
color) 6 Keres
Group:

Kasha‐Katuwe
Tent
Rocks (Semken) The
catastrophic Southwest
! 7 Zuñi‐Bandera
volcanic
field: many
centers
<
40
ka The
catastrophic Southwest
! McCartys
basalt
flow
(3.9
ka),
S
of
Grants,
New
Mexico
(New
Mexico
Tech) 8 San
Carlos
volcanic
field Mantle
xenoliths
in
basalt The
catastrophic Southwest
! Crater,
Peridot
Mesa,
San
Carlos
Apache
Nation,
Arizona

 (Semken) 9 Uinkaret,
Shivwits,
Santa
Clara
volcanic
fields (<
2
Ma)

NW
Arizona‐Arizona
Strip‐SW
Utah Vulcan’s Throne, North Rim, Grand Canyon (USGS) The
catastrophic Southwest
! 10 Cima
volcanic
field East
Mojave
Desert,
Basin
and
Range,
CA The
catastrophic Southwest
! (Reynolds) 11 Crater
Flat
volcanic
field east
Mojave
Desert,
Basin
and
Range,
NV The
catastrophic Southwest
! Lathrop
Wells
cone,
near
Yucca
Mountain,
NV

(D.
Vaniman) 12 Geologically
recent
volcanism Right inside one of the hills there was a mass of what looked like boiling coals pushing upward… Sunset Crater, Arizona (< 1000 ya) Bursts of sparks kept shooting into the air just as from a torch someone is running along with… Spewing forth in every direction, the molten embers started running everywhere. From all appearances, the flow was heading straight toward the village of Musangnuvi. From Earth Fire: a Hopi story of the 1065 AD Sunset Crater eruption, Ekkehart Malotki and Michael Lomatuway’ma SP Crater, Arizona (70,000 ya) The
catastrophic Southwest
! (all photos: U.S. Geological Survey) 13 Socorro
magma
body, Río
Grande
Rift Balch et al. http://www.ees.nmt.edu/Geop/magma.html#extent The
catastrophic Southwest
! http://www.ees.nmt.edu/Geop/NM_Seismology.html 14 Erosion
of
extinct
volcanic
landforms:
“Reverse
topography” Basaltic
eruption;
lava
flow T im e
an d 
w eath er Lava‐capped mesa (Reynolds,
Johnson,
Kelly,
Morin,
&
Carter,
2010) The
catastrophic Southwest
! 15 Recent
seismic
activity
in
the
Southwest The
catastrophic Southwest
! 16 Seismic
hazard
in
Arizona USGS The
catastrophic Southwest
! 17 March
2005 The
catastrophic Southwest
! 18 The
catastrophic Southwest
! 19 Extraterrestrial
impacts
have
caused
great geological
and
biological
changes
(and
will
do
so
in
the
future!) Impact landforms: craters Comets Asteroid belt Near-Earth asteroids Impacts
can
change
climate,
cause
extinctions Geological
processes
erase
all
but
the
most
recent
evidence
of
impacts
on
Earth The
catastrophic Southwest
! 20 San
Francisco
Peaks Barringer
Crater
(Meteor
Crater) ~
50,000
years
old (Reynolds,
Johnson,
Kelly,
Morin,
&
Carter,
2010) The
catastrophic Southwest
! 21 The
catastrophic Southwest
! 22 (Reynolds, Johnson, Kelly, Morin, & Carter, 2010) The
catastrophic Southwest
! 23 Impactor Target Compression Stage Shock wave Ejecta Fracture Melting Vaporization Excavation Stage Rarefaction wave Ejecta blanket Raised or overturned rim Fracturing Rebound Modification Stage begins Asteroid collisions made us what we are today. So why worry about the one that will do us in tomorrow? …astronomer Neil de Grasse Tyson NASA NASA ...
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This note was uploaded on 03/01/2011 for the course GLG 394 taught by Professor Semken during the Fall '10 term at ASU.

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