esas0802temp_WaterSw-II-stu

esas0802temp_WaterSw-II-stu -...

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Unformatted text preview: I
tell
you…
you
are
piling
up
a
heritage
of
conflict
and
litigation
of
water rights,
for
there
is
not
sufficient
water
to
supply
the
land! John
Wesley
Powell,
1893 Water
is
life
in
the
desert
(Part
2:
Surface
water) Glen
Canyon
Dam
on
the
Colorado
River at
Page,
AZ,
Colorado
Plateau; which
holds
back
artificial
Lake
Powell, named
for
John
Wesley
Powell
(USGS
photo) EARTH
SCIENCE
in ARIZONA
and
the SOUTHWEST The
desert
Southwest
must
import
its
surface
water
from
the
mountains, Virgin San
Juan Colorado Little Colorado Bill Williams Verde Colorado yampa Agua Hassa‐ Fria Salt Gila Gila so
its
rivers
are
essential
for
life. Water
is
life in
the
desert 2 How
do
we
measure
the
water
in
a
stream? Discharge
=
cross
section
x
velocity, usually
measured
in
cubic
feet/sec
(“cfs”) Lower
discharge


























Higher
discharge Grotzinger
et
al.
(2007) Water
is
life in
the
desert 3 The
U.S.
Geological
Survey
continuously
monitors
discharge
in
streams
across
the
USA, with
a
network
of
gaging
stations USGS
gaging
station in
San
Juan
River, Mexican
Hat,
UT, Colorado
Plateau Water
is
life in
the
desert 4 You
can
access
these
data
online
anytime! http://watermonitor.gov Water
is
life in
the
desert 5 Water
is
life in
the
desert 6 Discharges
can
vary
wildly
in
Southwest
rivers R.
Arrowsmith Río
Salado
in
low‐flow
stage, northeast
of
Mesa Water
is
life in
the
desert and
in
flood
(January
2005), 











at
Tempe
Town
Lake 7 A
flood
is
a
rapid,
extreme
increase
in
discharge
that
causes
a
stream
to
spill
over
its
banks Grotzinger
et
al.
(2007) Flooded
Gila
River
below
Phoenix
 Water
is
life in
the
desert (P.
Kresan
photo) 8 Flooding
in
the
desert Excessive
precipitation
(e.g.,
monsoon
storms) +
dry,
relatively
impermeable
soils +
pavement
in
urban
areas =
enhanced
runoff May
also
result
from
a
dam
or
levee
breach Matthew
Pellerin Water
is
life in
the
desert 9 Flash
floods Sycamore
Creek
near
Sunflower,
AZ,
Transition
Zone,
Feb
2005 Often
result
from
a
downpour
far
up
the
drainage,

with
little
warning
downstream Water
moves
quickly
and
powerfully Water
is
life in
the
desert 10 No
warning! Flash
floods
may
be
caused
by
a
storm system
miles
away Be
aware
of
the
season,
weather,
and geography To
escape
climb
vertically
at
an
angle
to the
flood
(if
possible) Antelope
Canyon,
Navajo
Nation
near Page,
AZ,
Colorado
Plateau 11
tourists
killed
12
August
1997 (National
Weather
Service,
Flagstaff
photo) Water
is
life in
the
desert 11 The
force
of
water Water
moving
at
6‐12
mph
carries
~500
lb
of
lateral
force Flowing
water: 6
in
deep
can sweep
people
off
their
feet 1
ft
deep
can float
a
1500‐pound
object 2
ft
deep
can carry
away
most
vehicles Water
is
life in
the
desert Kaiparowits
Basin,
UT, 12 Colorado
Plateau
(USGS
photo)
 Water
is
life in
the
desert 13 Water
is
life in
the
desert 14 Arizona’s
“Stupid
Motorist”
law A
driver
who
removes
or
ignores barricades
at
a
flooded
wash
could face
a
minimum
$2,000
fine Agencies
can
also
seek
fines
for
each firefighter
and
piece
of
rescue equipment
used Arizona
Daily
Star Water
is
life in
the
desert 15 Flooding
is
endemic
in
the
West Spring
Creek,
Ft
Collins,
CO,
Southern
Rockies,
1997 Ajo,
AZ,
Basin
and
Range,
2003 Big
Thompson
Canyon,
CO,
Southern
Rockies,
1976 Water
is
life in
the
desert Newaukum
River,
WA,
1965 16 Can
floods
be
predicted?
Only
as
probabilities! Recurrence
interval e.g.,

Skykomish
River
at
Gold
Bar,
WA




















Grotzinger
et
al.
(2007) Water
is
life in
the
desert Average
time interval
between (flood)
events
of
a given
magnitude. 17 In
the
early
20th
century
the
U.S.
government
began
building
dams
across
Western
rivers
for flood
control
(with
irrigation
and
hydroelectric
power
as
side
benefits) Hydroelectric
power
plant
at
Hoover
Dam
on
the
Colorado
River,
Arizona‐Nevada
border, Basin
and
Range Water
is
life in
the
desert 19 The
Colorado
River
system
has
become “The
American
Nile” Grotzinger
et
al.
(2007) University
of
Arizona Water
is
life in
the
desert 20 Features
along
the
Colorado
River Begins
in
Rockies
and
flows
to Gulf
of
California Important tributaries Water
is
life in
the
desert Reynolds,
Johnson,
Kelly,
Morin,
&
Carter,
2010 21 Observe
features
on
close‐ups
from
upper
part
of
the
river
system Steep
headwaters
of Green
River River
exits
Rockies
at Grand
Junction,
CO Entrenched meanders
on Green
and Colorado
R. Water
is
life in
the
desert Reynolds,
Johnson,
Kelly,
Morin,
&
Carter,
2010 22 Observe
features
on
close‐ups
from
lower
Colorado
River
system River
cuts
across structure
in
Grand Canyon Lake Powell behind Glen Canyon Dam Basalt
lava
flows formed
a
dam
in Grand
Canyon Water
is
life in
the
desert Reynolds,
Johnson,
Kelly,
Morin,
&
Carter,
2010 23 In
the
arid
Southwest,
water
now
also
“flows
uphill
toward
money.” Central
Arizona
Project (Lamberton
et
al.,
2010) The
lay of
the
land (Central
Arizona
Project,
2010: 24 www.cap‐az.com/about‐cap/system‐map) The
Central
Arizona
Project Designed
to
bring
about
1.5
million
acre‐feet
of
Colorado
River
water
per
year
to
Pima,
Pinal
and
Maricopa counties. Carries
water
from
Lake
Havasu
near
Parker
to
lands
of
the
San
Xavier
Indian
Nation
southwest
of
Tucson. A
336‐mile
long
system
of
aqueducts,
tunnels,
pumping
plants
and
pipelines. The
largest
supplier
of
water
in
the
state
of
Arizona. Water
is
life in
the
desert 25 CAP
aqueduct
crossing
the
Salt
River
Pima‐Maricopa
Community,
near
Red
Mountain Water
is
life in
the
desert 26 But
a
dam
alters
a
stream’s
profile, and
hence
its
flow
and
sediment
transport Typical
stream
profile Base
level Dam!! New
base
level above
dam Sediments
deposited
above
dam Grotzinger
et
al.
(2007) Water
is
life in
the
desert Stream
below
dam
erodes
its
bed 27 San
Juan
River above
Lake
Powell,
UT Colorado
Plateau Colorado
River below
Lake
Powell,
AZ Colorado
Plateau Notice
the
difference? Water
is
life in
the
desert 28 If
the
sediment
load
is less
than
what
the
stream
can carry
(the
competence):
 “hungry”
water Beach
below
Tapeats
Creek,
Grand
Canyon,
AZ Water
is
life in
the
desert 1952



versus



1995 29 Water
is
life in
the
desert 30 Dams
have
sometimes
formed
naturally,
e.g.: Late
Cenozoic
lava
dams
in
the
Grand
Canyon Vulcans
Throne
cinder
cone
and
lava
flows,
western
Grand
Canyon,
AZ,
Colorado
Plateau USGS Water
is
life in
the
desert 31 Late
Cenozoic
lava
dams
in
the
Grand
Canyon Hamblin
(2003) Water
is
life in
the
desert 32 Water
is
life in
the
desert Hamblin
(2003) 33 Water
is
life in
the
desert 34 A
dam
is
a
momentary,
human
bash
to
the
midsection
of
a
river. Steven
H.
Semken,
author (no
relation
to
yours
truly) Water
is
life in
the
desert 35 ...
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