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esas0804temp_EnergyWaterNexus-stu

esas0804temp_EnergyWaterNexus-stu - The EnergyWaterNexus...

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The Energy‐Water Nexus Hoover Dam and hydropower plant, Colorado River, Arizona‐Nevada EARTH SCIENCE in ARIZONA and the SOUTHWEST
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2 The Energy‐Water Nexus The Energy‐Water Nexus*: an interrelationship of increasing concern. These two critical resources are inextricably and reciprocally linked—the production of energy requires large volumes of water while the treatment and distribution of water is equally dependent upon readily available, low‐cost energy. US Department of Energy Four Corners Power Plant (2000 MW coal‐fired) and Morgan Lake (artificial lake constructed for plant cooling) near Shiprock, Navajo Nation, New Mexico *Sometimes referred to as the Water‐Energy Nexus (particularly by hydrologists).
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3 The Energy‐Water Nexus The geoscientific topics of energy resources and water resources have traditionally been taught in a decoupled manner, but energy and water systems are inextricably linked from the perspectives of environmental science, engineering, economics, and politics. The energy‐water nexus is an Earth systems problem with a significant anthropospheric component. US DOE, 2006
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4 The Energy‐Water Nexus The energy‐water interrelationship is quantified in two metrics that compare how much of one is required to produce a fixed amount of the other: Energy intensity The quantity of energy (commonly represented as power) consumed in providing water: typically in kWh/gal or MWh/gal Water intensity The quantity of water used to provide a quantity of power: typically in gal/kWh or gal/MWh (Woodhouse, 2007, after US DOE, 2006) Water intensity for different types of energy‐resource production and storage
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5 The Energy‐Water Nexus Most electricity is generated using turbines, which drive generators Nuclear Regulatory Commission Energy Information Administration, US DOE www.eia.doe.gov/kids/energyfacts/sources/electricity.html#Generation
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6 The Energy‐Water Nexus A thermal (coal‐fired) power plant 1. Cooling tower. 2. Cooling water pump. 3. Transmission line (3-phase). 4. Unit transformer (3-phase). 5. Electric generator (3-phase). 6. Low pressure turbine. 7. Condensate extraction pump. 8. Condensor. 9. Intermediate pressure turbine. 10. Steam governor valve. 11. High pressure turbine. 12. Deaerator. 13. Feed heater. 14. Coal conveyor. 15. Coal hopper. 16. Pulverised fuel mill. 17. Boiler drum. 18. Ash hopper. 19. Superheater. 20. Forced draught fan. 21. Reheater. 22. Air intake. 23. Economiser. 24. Air preheater. 25. Precipitator. 26. Induced draught fan. 27. Chimney stack. en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:PowerStation2.svg Chemical energy to heat energy to mechanical energy to electrical energy. “We don’t burn coal because it’s easy ‐‐we burn it because it’s cheap!” Average efficiency ~ 31 % Coal Electricity Waste heat Pollutants
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The Energy‐Water Nexus 1. Cooling tower. 2. Cooling water pump. 3. Transmission line (3-phase). 4. Unit transformer (3-phase). 5. Electric generator (3-phase). 6. Low pressure turbine. 7. Condensate extraction pump. 8. Condensor. 9. Intermediate
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