InterplayEarthSky

InterplayEarthSky - The
interplay
of
Earth
and
Sky

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Unformatted text preview: The
interplay
of
Earth
and
Sky EARTH
SCIENCE
in ARIZONA
and
the SOUTHWEST Shall
we
not
find
fascination
in
the
Earth’s
daily
doings? Stephen
Jay
Gould,
Earth
scientist
and
essayist Grand
Canyon
in
the
wake
of
a
storm,
Colorado
Plateau,
Arizona Landscapes
of
the
Southwest
bear
evidence
of processes
of
geological
change Reshaping the
crust
by folding
and fracturing: Tectonism Sculpting
the surface
by erosion
and deposition: Gradation Ascent
and eruption
of molten
rock: Volcanism Cratering by
impacts from
space (Internal
processes)

















 The
interplay
of Earth
and
Sky 














(External
processes) 2 Processes
of
geological
change
can
be gradual
or
sudden Rockfall,
Zion
National
Park,
UT Slow
erosion
of
an
arid
region Press
et
al.,
Figure
12.7 The
interplay
of Earth
and
Sky 3 Processes
of
geological
change
are interactions
among
the
geosphere,
hydrosphere,
atmosphere,
and
biosphere (and
sometimes
the
extraterrestrial
environment) External
agents
of
change: water,
air,
ice,
life
(Fluid
Earth);
bolides impact

cratering gradation volcanism tectonism Internal
changes occur
within
the
Solid
Earth
(rock,
metal,
soil) The
interplay
of Earth
and
Sky 4 What
powers
processes
of
change in
the
Earth
system? (Recall
this
question
from
first
lesson!) Sun’s
and
Moon’s gravity Solar
energy radiating
to
Earth Earth’s
gravity (Reynolds,
Johnson, Kelly,
Morin
&
Carter,
2010) Internal
heat
energy Stored
and
radiogenic
heat The
interplay
of Earth
and
Sky (Tasa) 5 Energizing
the
processes
of
geological
change that
continuously
rework
the
Earth
from
within
and
above GRAVITY External gradation impacts Internal tectonism volcanism GRAVITY GRAVITY Press
et
al. The
interplay
of Earth
and
Sky 6 Rock‐forming
processes
and
the
rock
cycle (Reynolds,
Johnson,
Kelly,
Morin,
&
Carter,
2008) The
interplay
of Earth
and
Sky 9 Rocks
formed
in
surface
environments Glaciers Rivers Steep
mountain
fronts Sand
dunes Lakes Shorelines Offshore The
interplay
of Earth
and
Sky Rocks
formed
in
normal
surface environments:
sedimentary (Reynolds,
Johnson, Kelly,
Morin
&
Carter,
2010) 10 Rocks
formed
in
hot
or
deep
conditions Rock
formed
from
magma: igneous (Reynolds,
Johnson, Kelly,
Morin
&
Carter,
2010) The
interplay
of Earth
and
Sky Changed
by
heat
and pressure:
metamorphic 11 How
long
have
these
processes
been
operating? How
old
is
the
Southwest…how
old
is
Earth? The
interplay
of Earth
and
Sky Grand
Canyon,
viewed
from
East
Rim Pueblo
Bonito
(Ancestral
Puebloan), Chaco
Culture
National
Historical
Park SE
of
Farmington,
NM,
Colorado
Plateau >
1100
years
old 12 Information
about
the
evolution
of
Earth, called
the
geologic
record, is
preserved
in
rocks
and
landscapes. Grand Canyon layers (strata) Grotzinger
et
al.
(2007) Grand
Canyon
from
South
Rim,
AZ,
Colorado
Plateau The
interplay
of Earth
and
Sky 13 How
do
we
interpret
the
geologic
record? What
evidence
do
we
look
for? Layered
rocks
along
US
60 in
Queen
Creek
Canyon, E
of
Superior,
AZ, Transition
Zone coral
reef corals The
interplay
of Earth
and
Sky NOAA 14 We
assume
natural
processes
we
observe
today worked
in
similar
ways
through
time:
uniformitarianism Layered
rocks
along
US
60 in
Queen
Creek
Canyon, E
of
Superior,
AZ, Transition
Zone Marine
rocks, deposited
beneath a
long‐gone
sea “The
present
is
the key
to
the
past.” Layered
rocks
along
US
60 in
Queen
Creek
Canyon, E
of
Superior,
AZ, Transition
Zone The
interplay
of Earth
and
Sky 15 We
assume
natural
processes
we
observe
today worked
in
similar
ways
through
time:
uniformitarianism Modern
stream
in
coniferous
forest, Riley
Creek,
Alaska Gravel
and
petrified
wood
in
semidesert, Petrified
Forest
National
Park, Colorado
Plateau,
Arizona The
interplay
of Earth
and
Sky “The
present
is
the key
to
the
past.” 16 Uniformitarianism
leads
to
the
conclusion
that the
Earth
is
very,
very
old! Slow
processes…Profound
changes The
interplay
of Earth
and
Sky Oak
Creek
at
Sedona,
 Transition
Zone,
Arizona Little
Colorado
River
canyon
near Cameron,
Colorado
Plateau,
Arizona 17 Uniformitarianism
leads
to
the
conclusion
that the
Earth
is
very,
very
old! Crustal
uplift
and
subsidence few
mm
per
year Gradation few
mm
per
year Find
evidence
 of
profound geologic changes The
interplay
of Earth
and
Sky Many
of
these processes
of change
are vanishingly
slow Such
changes required many
millions of
years! 18 The
Southwest
has
a
deep
history …every
rock
still
holds the
memory
of
that
time. When
you
are
here, you
hold
it
too. Byrd
Baylor Dinosaur
footprint
in
sandstone, Moenave,
Navajo
Nation,
AZ,
Colorado
Plateau ...
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This note was uploaded on 03/01/2011 for the course GLG 394 taught by Professor Semken during the Fall '10 term at ASU.

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