SES 311 Table Environ Extremes Life

SES 311 Table Environ Extremes Life - Lichens,...

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Environmental Extremes of Life Parameter Classification Definition Examples Temperature Hyperthermophile Thermophile Psychrophile >80ºC Growth 60º to 80º C Growth <15º C Active at -18º C Archaeal Strain 121 ; 121ºC (a) Methanopyrus kandleri (b) Pyrolobus fumarii ; ~116ºC Synechococcus lividis; ~ 73ºC Psychrobacter Himilayan midge (c) pH Acidophile Alkaliphile Low pH (<5) High pH (>9) Ferroplasma acidarmanus ; pH 0 (d) Alkaliphilus transvaalensis , pH 12.5 (e) Nantronobacterium ; pH 10.5 Salinity Halophile 2 to 5 Molar NaCl Halobacteriaceae Oxygen tension Aerobe Microaerophile Anaerobe Requires O 2 Tolerates some O 2 Not tolerant of O 2 Bacteria, Archaea Neutral pH Fe 2+ -oxidizing bacteria Methanogens, SO 4 2- -reducers Dessication Xerophile Anhydrobiotic
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Unformatted text preview: Lichens, cyanobacteria; arid deserts Radiation Radiophile Ionizing-radiation to 15 kGy, Deinococcus radiodurans (f) Pressure Piezophile* Pressure-loving Obligate strain MT41 (g); 100 Mpa Chemical extremes Gases Metals Metalotolerant Cyanidium caldarium ; pure CO 2 Ferroplasma Reference: Farmer, Jack D., James F. Bell III, Kathleen C. Benison, William V. Boynton, Sherry L. Cady, F. Grant Ferris, Duncan MacPherson, Margaret S. Race, Mark H. Thiemens, Meenakshi Wadwa. 2009. Assessment of Planetary Protection Requirements for Mars Sample Return Missions. Space Studies Board, Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences, National Research Council of the National Academies. The National Academies Press, Washington D.C....
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