Lecture 3 Ch 3-4 - Lecture 3 Chapters 3 and 4 Genetics,...

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Lecture 3 Chapters 3 and 4 Genetics, Evolution of Genes and Population Genetics
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Genetics is the branch of science that deals with the inheritance of biological characteristics. It is the study of how genetic (and physical) traits are transmitted from one generation to the next (and so on).
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Single-celled organisms = prokaryotes or prokaryotic cells Staphylococcus aureus diatoms Blue-green algae (Cyanobacteria)
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more complex cells = eukaryotic cells (make up multi-cellular organisms)
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These eukaryotic cells are three- dimensional and are made up of carbohydrates, lipids, nucleic acids and proteins. They contain structures called organelles within a cell membrane . One particular organelle is called a nucleus , encased in a nuclear membrane .
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Kingdoms marked in red are eukaryotic creatures a eukaryotic cell
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In humans, there are two kinds of cells: Somatic cells Gametes (sex cells or germ cells)
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Generalised diagram of a somatic cell – together, somatic cells form organs, tissues and other parts of the body
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Somatic cells have genetic material from both the mother and the father (as do specialized cells that create gametes). They are called diploid (meaning that they have input from both parents and a full complement of chromosomes) (somatic cells contain 46 chromosomes , see below)
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Gametes are haploid cells They contain only 23 chromosomes (half the number of a somatic cell) 23 + 23 = 46 chromosomes in the zygote sperm 23 chromosomomes egg (aka ovum, pl. ova) 23 chromosomes
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Inside the nucleus are two acids containing the genetic information that controls cell function (among other things). These two acids (made up of molecules) are called DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) and RNA (ribonucleic acid) .
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Molecules are chemical structures that are made up of two or more atoms. Molecules can combine with other molecules to form more complex structures.
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DNA is: the double-stranded ( double-helix- shaped ) molecule that contains the genetic code. Gene = a small portion of DNA
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