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Lecture 9 Ch 10 - Lecture 9 Chapter 10 The Origins and...

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Lecture 9 Chapter 10 The Origins and Evolution of Early Homo
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Upper Palaeolithic (c. 40,000 ya – 10,000 ya) later Homo sapiens various Middle Palaeolithic (c. 500,000/300,000 ya – 40,000 ya) early Homo sapiens c. 200,000-40,000ya various Homo neanderthalensis 170,00/130,000-30,000ya Levallois/ Mousterian Homo heidelbergensis c. 0.5mya-130,000ya Levallois/ Acheulean Lower Palaeolithic (c. 2.6 mya – 500,000/300,000 ya) Homo erectus 1.9 - 0.5mya Oldowan + Acheulean Homo habilis 2.5-1.8mya Oldowan Australopithecus garhi c. 2.6-2.5mya Oldowan
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Two weeks ago: -Introduction to models for and precursors to bipedalism -the Geological Time Scale, epochs and environmental changes -Taxonomy/biological classification and phylogenies -A number of genera of early hominids introduced: (e.g. Sahelanthropus , Orrorin , Ardipithecus , Australopithecus, Paranthropus and Homo)
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Who were the first toolmakers? Who were the earliest members of the genus Homo ? What characteristics define the genus Homo ? Which hominid(s?) left Africa? Who was Homo erectus ? Why was H. erectus so successful? Where and when did Homo sapiens arise?
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Who were the first toolmakers? Earliest identifiable tools come from East Africa around 2.5 mya Traditionally, Homo habilis (the first hominid in our genus) associated with the Oldowan tool tradition/stone tool industry New evidence has suggested otherwise
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Australopithecus garhi (2.5mya) Cranial capacity of 450 cc Probable ancestor of Homo
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Australopithecus garhi (c. 2.5 mya) from Bouri, Ethiopia - cutmarks on fossil bones in association - tool use - similar age for stone tools in a nearby stream bed Oldowan industry associated with Early Homo and possibly some Australopithecines c. 2.5 (or 2.6 mya at Gona, Ethiopia).
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‘Age of Mammals’ age of apes age of humanity Geological Time Scale
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Pliocene epoch (5.2 - 1.6 mya) – development of bipedalism and ‘out of Africa’ by H. erectus Pleistocene epoch (1.6 mya - 15-12 kya) – the Great Ice Age These are Climatic/Geological periods (describing the environment and climate – see Geological Time Scale) Lower Palaeolithic – ‘early Old Stone Age’ (2.6/2.5 mya - 300,000/120,000 ya) – includes Oldowan and Acheulian This is a Cultural/Technological period (describing ancient technology and economy with implications for understanding past social make up)
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From the Larsen text
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Homo habilis 2.5 to 1.8mya
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Homo habilis ER 1470 Koobi Fora, East Turkana, Kenya 1.9 mya cranial capacity: 775cc
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Early Homo (Homo habilis and Homo rudolfensis) – c. 2.5 – 1.8mya -species of Early Homo (still) may have been tree-climbers at least part of the time (but opposable thumb) – still relatively short legs - not a striding gait -Wood and Collard say H. habilis more like the Australopithecines than later species in the genus Homo
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