Ch 16 (Acid-base Chemistry)

Ch 16 (Acid-base Chemistry) - CHEM 1A03: Intro. Chemistry I...

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1 CHEM 1A03: Intro. Chemistry I Acid-Base Chemistry Ch.16: Acids and Bases 1 A World of Taste, Nutrition & Medicine Acidic: Sour Alkaline: Bitter ± Early qualitative tests to distinguish acids & bases by taste! ± Focus on fundamental acid-base chemistry to describe their reactivity in the context of energy, health & environment 2 Coca Leaf O O NH + O O Cocaine (Alkaloid) Soft Drinks: Colas Phosphoric acid P O OH OH HO ± Electrolyte dissolution behaviour ± Acids ionize to generate proton Æ H + (aq), whereas bases ionize to produce hydroxide Æ OH - (aq) Acid-Base Chemistry: Electrolyte Theory Arrhenius Theory HCl (aq) Æ H + (aq) + Cl - (aq) Strong Acid 3 ± Theory applicable to protic acids & metal hydroxides in water, however many exceptions Æ BF 3 and NH 3 ± Neutralization reaction: Net Ionic Equation Refer to Ch. 16-1, pg 664 Novel Prize 1903 Æ Electrolytic Theory NaOH (aq) Æ Na + (aq) + OH - (aq) Strong Base H + (aq) + OH - (aq) Æ H 2 O (l) Acid-Base Chemistry: Focus on H + Bronsted-Lowry Theory Acid Conjugate Base Base Conjugate Acid acid = H + donor, base = H + acceptor acid/base reactants & conjugate acid/base products: 4 Refer to Ch. 16-2, pg 664-667- note arrows go in wrong direction in text HCl (aq) + H 2 O (l) Æ Cl - (aq) + H 3 O + (aq) NH 3 (aq) + H 2 O (l) NH 4 + (aq) + OH - (aq) •H 2 O is an amphoteric species (behaves as both an acid or a base) Base Conjugate Acid Acid Conjugate Base ± Defined acid as a e - pair acceptor & base as a e - pair donor ± Least restrictive definition that describes aqueous/non-aqueous solvents, as well as unusual non-protic acid systems… Acid-Base Chemistry: Electron Flow! Lewis Theory Acid Base Conjugate Adduct K a 5 Defined only in Ch 16-9 (Note in 16-2 arrow direction is opposite & incorrect) NH 3 + BF 3 NH 3 -BF 3 K a N B F F F H H H Both N & B with filled octet valence No apparent change in [H 3 O + ] or H + transfer! δ - δ - B H H .. N H F F F Electron deficient 6 valence e - Non-bonding lone e - pair δ + δ - Britz Britz – iClicker Question #1 iClicker Question #1 Identify the Lewis base in the following reaction: Cr 3+ (aq) + 6H 2 O(l) Æ [Cr(H 2 O) 6 ] 3+ 8 a.Cr 3+ b.H 2 O c.[Cr(H 2 O) 6 ] 3+ d.This isn’t a Lewis acid/base reaction
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2 Acid-Base Chemistry: Electron Flow! Strong Acids/Bases HCl (aq) + H 2 O (l) Æ Cl - (aq) + H 3 O + (aq) Acid Base Conjugate Base Conjugate Acid 10 H Cl .. + O HH .. .. .. - Cl .. .. O H + + H 2 O is a stronger base than Cl - / HCl is a stronger acid than H 3 O + K a > 1.0 x 10 6 (25 ° C) Æ Irreversible! δ + δ - K a >> 1 Defined only in Ch 16-9 (Note in 16-2 arrow direction is opposite & incorrect) Acid-Base Equilibrium: Weak acid & K a Base Acid Conjugate Base Conjugate Acid CH 3 COOH (aq) + H 2 O (l) CH 3 COO - (aq) + H 3 O + (aq) K a + - O C .. O + K a .. O O H H + C .. 11 Equilibrium favours reverse process: Acidity of H 3 O + > CH 3 COOH Basicity of CH 3 COO - > H 2 O 5 3 3 3 10 8 . 1 COOH] [CH ] O ][H COO [CH + × = = a K Refer to Ch 16-5, pg 674-681 H 3 C O H H H ..
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Ch 16 (Acid-base Chemistry) - CHEM 1A03: Intro. Chemistry I...

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