Social Class - Social Class Social Class Social Class...

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Unformatted text preview: Social Class Social Class Social Class Social Class “Universal” to have social class systems creates order creates rules about social interaction who we are and Defines where we come from Social Class (con’t.) Social Class (con’t.) Relatively new phenomenon Uses clothing as at least one of the symbols designating class membership We can’t talk about Social We can’t talk about Social Class without mentioning Economic Class. Economic Class Systems Economic Class Systems “Universal” to have economic systems Sometimes economic class system is in creates order conflict with social class systems Socio­Economic Class Systems Socio­Economic Class Systems may be intrinsically tied or may be separated based more on economics than social power Social Class Systems Social Class Systems May be Rigid class system* or Open class system May or may not be tied to wealth Rigid (Caste) Rigid (Caste) Has to do with roles, status dress & appearance clearly defined & strictly enforced Whatever social class you are born into stay there rest of life no opportunity to move up Caste System Caste System Perpetuates a culture Rules emphasize and protect the group Caste System ­ Clothing Caste System ­ Clothing Over time, very little change in appearance, clothing styles; Each role/social class has a very specific fashion does not exist appearance Other classes are forbidden to dress better than their own class How did an open class system How did an open class system come about? 476 1450 Fall Roman Empire Dark Ages Middle Ages upper & lower only **************************************** 1450 – beginning European Renaissance Middle Class Emerged 1600 ­ merchant class – well established as a result of world explorers Marco Polo E Columbus W Merchant Class = $ Merchant Class = $ Provided means to copy clothing of upper class Start of dominance mimicry driven by $ FASHION = styles changed at a faster pace Created open class systems Dispersion of wealth Lead to roles, status & dress that could be achieved Sumptuary Laws Sumptuary Laws In both kinds of systems there have been Sumptuary Laws Maintain separateness Keep middle/lower class in their place Keep own class in their place So how does the phenomenon So how does the phenomenon of fashion occur? 3 Theories of Fashion 3 Theories of Fashion Adoption a. Trickle­Down b. Trickle up Theory c. Trickle Across a. Trickle­Down a. Trickle­Down upper class wears a “fashion” middle class tries to copy upper class pay a lot of $ fashion lower class tries to copy middle class upper class moves to something else the similar “look” for less $ same “look” for less $ minute they feel are they are being copied Trickle­Down “Players” Trickle­Down “Players” Fashion creators Fashion leaders tailors/dressmaker upper class/wealthy middle & lower class Fashion followers Fashion Moves Faster Fashion Moves Faster Increase in speed of fashion turnover very important part of society and culture relates to speed of communication since the Industrial Revolution 1750 Emulation Emulation To be competitive, reverential, negative Includes identification emulation It’s more about fitting in (remember about Dominance Mimicry?) b. Trickle Up Theory Modern day theory Emphasis on youth Dress is statement of social consciousness/revoluti on Trickle Up Theory (con’t.) Trickle Up Theory (con’t.) “Fashion” at the bottom of the social class structure Youth wears “street wear” “Look” becomes adopted by next layer up Costs more $ Moves up to upper class Costs even more $ More refined interpretation More adult interpretation Examples Examples Social consciousness /revolution French Revolution Viet Nam Era Hippie Patriot = peasant Patched jeans designer jeans Tie­dye T­shirts designer t­shirts Trickle Up Theory “Players” Trickle Up Theory “Players” As the fashions move up through the social classes, they get upgraded in $/ styling Reversal of roles: Fashion leaders – worn on the street Followers – middle/upper classes Creators – designers make it “fashion” c. Trickle Across c. Trickle Across Fashion appears in all social classes & all price levels at the same time People within a class are more concerned about their peers than what’s above or below comfortable with the familiar Trickle Across “Players” Trickle Across “Players” Only theory that could pertain to Rigid Class System Fashion Creators \ Fashion Leaders ­­­ all doing same thing Fashion Followers / at same time Social Mobility Social Mobility Appearance/dress can be a boost/facilitator to social mobility or can be a hindrance to social mobility Founding of the United States Founding of the United States lower class European rejects second sons convicts debtors seek their own fortune refugees – religious, political American Dream American Dream Replaced inherited success with “work hard and you, too, can be successful” Immigrants no money Can become “self­made” enter U.S. as our lower class move up in social class system “rags to riches” fairy tales: marrying a prince open class Cinderella ­ “Pretty pervades human Woman” Underdog – “Rocky” existence Importance of Public Education Importance of Public Education Sole means to achieving this goal Europe – education only for wealthy U.S. ­ tax $ support of public education is what allows all the upward mobility GI Bill GI Bill After WWII, GI Bill made it possible for any veteran to college at virtually no cost class Vast improvements in technology Increased # tech/professional jobs Significant economic boost to U.S. middle Conspicuous Consumption: New money Showing off wealth – clothes Inconspicuous Consumption “old money” Classic, conservative styling Finest materials, finest workmanship Personal style Understated Conspicuous Leisure Conspicuous Leisure For both “old” and “new” money Show you don’t have to do manual labor Ex: prior centuries tan = worked outdoors lily white skin = no work (reversed now!) Conspicuous Leisure (con’t.) Conspicuous Leisure (con’t.) Ex: Bound feet (ancient practice) Conspicuous Leisure (con’t.) Conspicuous Leisure (con’t.) Ex: Long fingernails (modern­day practice) Conspicuous Leisure ­ updated Conspicuous Leisure ­ updated 1950’s go to beach elevation in incomes addition of leisure time work = office work (“lily white”) tan = less manual work (however, health risk in the extreme) Conspicuous Waste Conspicuous Waste Modern day Since Industrial Revolution – mass market economies fast paced fashion pay less per item buy more items get rid of and buy more Has not been true in cultures that are very conservation minded Ex: Japan island cultures – very limited resources Clothing Motivations by Clothing Motivations by Class Clothing Motivations by Class Clothing Motivations by Class % of US 1­1.5% Clothing appearance classic, conservative styling (inconspicuous consumption) Wealth of top 1% = wealth of lower 95% Social class upper­upper class (old money) Clothing Motivations by Class (con’t.) Clothing Motivations by Class (con’t.) % of US 2% Social class Lower­upper class Clothing appearance High fashion, extravagant, dress like money is no object (conspicuous consumption) Clothing Motivations by Class (con’t.) Clothing Motivations by Class (con’t.) % of US 70­72% Social class Middle Class Clothing appearance respectability or social acceptance, “keeping up w/ Jones” educated professionals; professional dress (10% out of 70%) Upper middle class Clothing Motivations by Class (con’t.) Clothing Motivations by Class (con’t.) % of US 25% Social class Lower class Clothing appearance 1. looking at how clothes might be useful to moving up; 2. available funds very limited; should be durable, utilitarian but actually fun, wild, crazy, frivolous; psychological needs more compelling Income Income 32.8% of jobs in US over $45,000 comfortable middle class = $65,000 What are the ramifications of this What are the ramifications of this for your future life? have to be double income family have to work second job has to be higher paying if only want to work 1 job higher paying jobs far harder to get unless what does this do to your family life if willing to work like a “dog” for a company are always at work????? you Importance of Family Importance of Family if family is a very important cultural value to you how can you earn a big salary (lots of hours at there is a tremendous work) and spend a lot of time with your family? contradiction/dilemma here What will it take to be What will it take to be HAPPY?????? # # # ...
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