Session 4 Psy 201 - PSY 201. Prof. Eric Shiraev Session 4...

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Unformatted text preview: PSY 201. Prof. Eric Shiraev Session 4 Psychology 201 Human Development The Periods of Human Development Prenatal period Infancy Childhood Adolescence Adulthood From conception to birth. Takes approximately 266 days in every ethnic, racial, or social group From birth to 2 years. The child acquires initial motor, cognitive, and social skills From 2 to 11-12 years. The child acquires language and learns about the most important social skills. From 11-12 to 19-20 years. The child has reached sexual maturity but has not yet taken on rights and responsibilities of the adult status. From 20 years onward. The individual has achieved adult status as prescribed by the norms and laws of a particular society Developmental stages according to Erikson Stage (age) 1 (0-1) infant 2 (2-3) toddler 3 (3-6) preschooler 4 (7-12 or so) school-age child 5 (12-18 or so) adolescence 6 (the 20’s) young adult Psychosocial crisis trust vs mistrust Significant relations mother Psychosocial modalities to get, to give in return to hold on, to let go to go after, to play Psychosocial virtues hope, faith will, determination purpose, courage competence fidelity, loyalty Maladaptations & malignancies sensory distortion -withdrawal impulsivity -compulsion ruthlessness -inhibition narrow virtuosity -inertia fanaticism -repudiation promiscuity -exclusivity overextension -rejectivity presumption -- despair autonomy vs shame parents and doubt initiative vs guilt industry vs inferiority ego-identity vs roleconfusion family neighborhood and to complete, to make school things together peer groups, role models to be oneself, to share oneself intimacy vs isolation partners, friends household, workmates mankind or “my kind” to lose and find oneself in a love another to make be, to take care of to be, through having been, to face not being care wisdom 7 (late 20’s to 50’s) -- generativity vs selfmiddle adult absorption 8 (50’s and beyond) -- old adult integrity vs despair Chart adapted from Erikson's 1959 Identity and the Life Cycle (Psychological Issues vol 1, #1) PSY 201. Prof. Eric Shiraev Kohlberg’s Stages of Moral Development Stage 1. Pre-conventional level. Judgments about what is right and what is wrong are based on fear of punishment. Stage 2. Pre-conventional level. Moral conduct produces pleasure, whereas immoral conduct results in unwanted consequences. Stage 3. Conventional level. Any behavior is good if it is approved by significant others. Stage 4. Conventional level. The existing laws determine what is moral and immoral. Stage 5. Post-conventional level. Moral behavior is based on individual rights and underlying social circumstances. Stage 6. Post-conventional level. Moral conduct is regulated by universal ethical principles that may rise above government and laws. Development of Attachment Types Secure Attachment Type The child feels comfortable to be close; develops trust and confidence in the family members; tends not to worry about being abandoned or unloved. Anxious/Ambivalent The child’s desire to be close to someone, to trust and feel Attachment Type secure is accompanied by mistrust, hostility, fears of abandonment, jealousy, and emotional “highs” and “lows” Avoidant The child feels discomfort in being close to others; tends to be Attachment Type alone and distrustful; later tends to be fearful of becoming attached. PSY 201. Prof. Eric Shiraev Gordon Allport’s developmental stages Sense of body develops in the first two-three years of life. We define its boundaries, pain, discomfort, warmth, and establish boundaries. Self-identity develops in the first two-three years. We understand self from the time dimension: “past,” “now,” and future. We understand the uniqueness of self: I am the same person when I wake up tomorrow. Self-esteem develops between two and four years of age. We recognize that other people and we have a particular value. Self-extension develops between four and six. Things, people, symbols, and events become essential to our existence. Self-image also develops between four and six. This is the “looking-glass self,” the me as others see me. Rational coping is learned mainly in the years from six to twelve. The child begins to develop the abilities to deal with life’s problems rationally and effectively. Propriate striving begins after twelve years old. This is our goals, ideals, plans, and a sense of direction. Comments: S ense of body develops in the first two years of life. We have one, we feel its closeness, its warmth. It has boundaries that pain and injury, touch and movement, make us aware of. Allport had a favorite demonstration of this aspect of self: Imagine spitting saliva into a cup -- and then drinking it down! What s the problem? It s the same stuff you swallow all day long! But, of course, it has gone out from your bodily self and become, thereby, foreign to you. S elf - identity also develops in the first two years. There comes a point were we recognize ourselves as continuing, as having a past, present, and future. We see ourselves as individual entities, separate and different from others. We even have a name! Will you be the same person when you wake up tomorrow? Of course -- we take that continuity for granted. S elf - esteem develops between two and four years old. There also comes a time when we recognize that we have value, to others and to ourselves. This is especially tied to a continuing development of our competencies. This, for Allport, is what the anal stage is really all about! S elf - extension develops between four and six. Certain things, people, and events around us also come to be thought of as central and warm, essential to my existence. My is very close to me! Some people define themselves in terms of their parents, spouse, or children, their clan, gang, community, college, or nation. Some find their identity in activities: I m a psychologist, a student, a bricklayer. Some find identity in a place: my house, my hometown. When my child does something wrong, why do I feel guilty? If someone scratches my car, why do I feel like they just punches me? S elf - image also develops between four and six. This is the looking-glass self, the me as others see me. This is the impression I make on others, my look, my social esteem or status, including my sexual identity. It is the beginning of what conscience, ideal self, and persona. R ational coping is learned predominantly in the years from six till twelve. The child begins to develop his or her abilities to deal with life s problems rationally and effectively. This is analogous to Erikson s industry. P ropriate striving doesn t usually begin till after twelve years old. This is my self as goals, ideal, plans, vocations, callings, a sense of direction, a sense of purpose. The culmination of propriate striving, according to Allport, is the ability to say that I am the proprietor of my life -- i.e. the owner and operator! Source: Dr. C. George Boeree PSY 201. Prof. Eric Shiraev Theory of Jean Piaget Source: Jean Piaget began his career as a biologist -- specifically, a malacologist! But his interest in science and the history of science soon overtook his interest in snails and clams. As he delved deeper into the thought-processes of doing science, he became interested in the nature of thought itself, especially in the development of thinking. Finding relatively little work done in the area, he had the opportunity to give it a label. He called it g enetic epistemology , meaning the study of the development of knowledge. He noticed, for example, that even infants have certain skills in regard to objects in their environment. These skills were certainly simple ones, sensori-motor skills, but they directed the way in which the infant explored his or her environment and so how they gained more knowledge of the world and more sophisticated exploratory skills. These skills he called s chem as . For example, an infant knows how to grab his favorite rattle and thrust it into his mouth. He s got that schema down pat. When he comes across some other object -- say daddy s expensive watch, he easily learns to transfer his grab and thrust schema to the new object. This Piaget called a ssimilation , specifically assimilating a new object into an old schema. When our infant comes across another object again -- say a beach ball -- he will try his old schema of grab and thrust. This of course works poorly with the new object. So the schema will adapt to the new object: Perhaps, in this example, squeeze and drool would be an appropriate title for the new schema. This is called a ccommodation , specifically accomodating an old schema to a new object. Assimilation and accommodation are the two sides of a daptation , Piaget s term for what most of us would call learning. Piaget saw adaptation, however, as a good deal broader than the kind of learning that Behaviorists in the US were talking about. He saw it as a fundamentally biological process. Even one s grip has to accommodate to a stone, while clay is assimilated into our grip. All living things adapt, even without a nervous system or brain. Assimilation and accommodation work like pendulum swings at advancing our understanding of the world and our competency in it. According to Piaget, they are directed at a balance between the structure of the mind and the environment, at a certain congruency between the two, that would indicate that you have a good (or at least good-enough) model of the universe. This ideal state he calls e quilibrium . As he continued his investigation of children, he noted that there were periods where assimilation dominated, periods where accommodation dominated, and periods of relative equilibrium, and that these periods were similar among all the children he looked at in their nature and their timing. And so he developed the idea of s tages of cognitive development. These constitute a lasting contribution to psychology. T he sensorimotor stage The first stage, to which we have already referred, is the sensorimotor stage. It lasts from birth to about two years old. As the name implies, the infant uses senses and motor abilities to understand the world, beginning with reflexes and ending with complex combinations of sensorimotor skills. Between one and four months, the child works on p rimary circular reactions -- just an action of his own which serves as a stimulus to which it responds with the same action, and around and around we go. For example, the baby may suck her thumb. That feels good, so she sucks some more... Or she may blow a bubble. That s interesting so I ll do it again.... Between four and 12 months, the infant turns to s econdary circular reactions , which involve an act that extends out to the environment: She may squeeze a rubber duckie. It goes quack. That s great, so do it again, and again, and again. She is learning procedures that make interesting things last. At this point, other things begin to show up as well. For example, babies become ticklish, although they must be aware that someone else is tickling them or it won t work. And they begin to develop object permanence. This is the ability to recognize that, just because you can t see something PSY 201. Prof. Eric Shiraev doesn t mean it s gone! Younger infants seem to function by an out of sight, out of mind schema. Older infants remember, and may even try to find things they can no longer see. Between 12 months and 24 months, the child works on t ertiary cir cular reactions . They consist of the same making interesting things last cycle, except with constant variation. I hit the drum with the stick -- rat-tat-tat-tat. I hit the block with the stick -- thump-thump. I hit the table with the stick -clunk-clunk. I hit daddy with the stick -- ouch-ouch. This kind of active experimentation is best seen during feeding time, when discovering new and interesting ways of throwing your spoon, dish, and food. Around one and a half, the child is clearly developing m ental representation , that is, the ability to hold an image in their mind for a period beyond the immediate experience. For example, they can engage in d eferred imitation , such as throwing a tantrum after seeing one an hour ago. They can use m ental com binations to solve simple problems, such as putting down a toy in order to open a door. And they get good at pretending. Instead of using dollies essentially as something to sit at, suck on, or throw, now the child will sing to it, tuck it into bed, and so on. P reoperational stage The preoperational stage lasts from about two to about seven years old. Now that the child has mental representations and is able to pretend, it is a short step to the use of s ymbols . A symbol is a thing that represents something else. A drawing, a written word, or a spoken word comes to be understood as representing a real dog. The use of language is, of course, the prime example, but another good example of symbol use is c reative play , wherein checkers are cookies, papers are dishes, a box is the table, and so on. By manipulating symbols, we are essentially thinking, in a way the infant could not: in the absence of the actual objects involved! Along with symbolization, there is a clear understanding of past and future. for example, if a child is crying for its mother, and you say Mommy will be home soon, it will now tend to stop crying. Or if you ask him, Remember when you fell down? he will respond by making a sad face. On the other hand, the child is quite e goce ntric during this stage, that is, he sees things pretty much from one point of view: his own! She may hold up a picture so only she can see it and expect you to see it too. Or she may explain that grass grows so she won t get hurt when she falls. Piaget did a study to investigate this phenomenon called the mountains study. He would put children in front of a simple plaster mountain range and seat himself to the side, then ask them to pick from four pictures the view that he, Piaget, would see. Younger children would pick the picture of the view they themselves saw; older kids picked correctly. PSY 201. Prof. Eric Shiraev PSY 201. Prof. Eric Shiraev Similarly, younger children c enter on one aspect of any problem or communication at a time. for example, they may not understand you when you tell them Your father is my husband. Or they may say things like I don t live in the USA; I live in Pennsylvania! Or, if you show them five black and three white marbles and ask them Are there more marbles or more black marbles? they will respond More black ones! Perhaps the most famous example of the preoperational child s centrism is what Piaget refers to as their inability to conserve liquid volume. If I give a three year old some chocolate milk in a tall skinny glass, and I give myself a whole lot more in a short fat glass, she will tend to focus on only one of the dimensions of the glass. Since the milk in the tall skinny glass goes up much higher, she is likely to assume that there is more milk in that one than in the short fat glass, even though there is far more in the latter. It is the development of the child's ability to d ecenter that marks him as havingmoved to the next stage. C oncrete operations stage The concrete operations stage lasts from about seven to about 11. The word o perations refers to logical operations or principles we use when solving problems. In this stage, the child not only uses symbols representationally, but can manipulate those symbols logically. Quite an accomplishment! But, at this point, they must still perform these operations within the context of concrete situations. The stage begins with progressive decentering. By six or seven, most children develop the ability to c onserve number, length, and liquid volume. C onservation refers to the idea that a quantity remains the same despite changes in appearance. If you show a child four marbles in a row, then spread them out, the preoperational child will focus on the spread, and tend to believe that there are now more marbles than before. Or if you have two five inch sticks laid parallel to each other, then move one of them a little, she may believe that the moved stick is now longer than the other. PSY 201. Prof. Eric Shiraev The concrete operations child, on the other hand, will know that there are still four marbles, and that the stick doesn t change length even though it now extends beyond the other. And he will know that you have to look at more than just the height of the milk in the glass: If you pour the mild from the short, fat glass into the tall, skinny glass, he will tell you that there is the same amount of milk as before, despite the dramatic increase in mild-level! By seven or eight years old, children develop conservation of substance: If I take a ball of clay and roll it into a long thin rod, or even split it into ten little pieces, the child knows that there is still the same amount of clay. And he will know that, if you rolled it all back into a single ball, it would look quite the same as it did -- a feature known as r eversibility . By nine or ten, the last of the conservation tests is mastered: conservation of area. If you take four one-inch square pieces of felt, and lay them on a six-by-six cloth together in the center, the child who conserves will know that they take up just as much room as the same squares spread out in the corners, or, for that matter, anywhere at all. If all this sounds too easy to be such a big deal, test your friends on conservation of mass: Which is heavier: a million tons of lead, or a million tons of feathers? In addition, a child learns c lassification and s eriation during this stage. Classification refers back to the question of whether there are more marbles or more black marbles? Now the child begins to get the idea that one set can include another. Seriation is putting things in order. The younger child may start putting things in order by, say size, but will quickly lose track. Now the child has no problem with such a task. Since arithmetic is essentially nothing more than classification and seriation, the child is now ready for some formal education! PSY 201. Prof. Eric Shiraev F ormal operations stage But the concrete operations child has a hard time applying his new-found logical abilities to nonconcrete -- i.e. abstract -- events. If mom says to junior You shouldn t make fun of that boy s nose. How would you feel if someone did that to you? he is likely to respond I don t have a big nose! Even this simple lesson may well be too abstract, too hypothetical, for his kind of thinking. Don t judge the concrete operations child too harshly, though. Even adults are often taken-aback when we present them with something hypothetical: If Edith has a lighter complexion than Susan, and Edith is darker than Lily, who is the darkest? Most people need a moment or two. From around 12 on, we enter the formal operations stage. Here we become increasingly competent at adult-style thinking. This involves using logical operations, and using them in the abstract, rather than the concrete. We often call this h ypothetical thinking . Here s a simple example of a task that a concrete operations child couldn t do, but which a formal operations teenager or adult could -- with a little time and effort. Consider this rule about a set of cards that have letters on one side and numbers on the other: If a card has a vowel on one side, then it has an even number on the other side. Take a look at the cards below and tell me, which cards do I need to turn over to tell if this rule is actually true? You ll find the answer at the end of this chapter. It is the formal operations stage that allows one to investigate a problem in a careful and systematic fashion. Ask a 16 year old to tell you the rules for making pendulums swing quickly or slowly, and he may proceed like this: A long string with a light weight -- let’s see how fast that swings. A long string with a heavy weight -- let’s try that. Now, a short string with a light weight. And finally, a short string with a heavy weight. His experiment -- and it is an experiment -- would tell him that a short string leads to a fast swing, and a long string to a slow swing, and that the weight of the pendulum means nothing at all! The teenager has learned to group possibilities in four different ways: By conjunction: “Both A and B make a difference” (e.g. both the string’s length and the pendulum’s weight). PSY 201. Prof. Eric Shiraev By d isjunction : It s either this or that (e.g. it s either the length or the weight). By i mplication : If it s this, then that will happen (the formation of a hypothesis). By i ncompatibility : When this happens, that doesn t (the elimination of a hypothesis). On top of that, he can operate on the operations -- a higher level of grouping. If you have a proposition, such as “it could be the string or the weight,” you can do four things with it: Identity: Leave it alone. “It could be the string or the weight.” N egation : Negate the components and replace or s with and s (and vice versa). It might not be the string and not the weight, either. R eciprocity : Negate the components but keep the and s and or s as they are. Either it is not the weight or it is not the string. C orrelativity : Keep the components as they are, but replace or s with and s, etc. It s the weight and the string. Someone who has developed his or her formal operations will understand that the correlate of a reciprocal is a negation, that a reciprocal of a negation is a correlate, that the negation of a correlate is a reciprocal, and that the negation of a reciprocal of a correlate is an identity (phew!!!). Maybe it has already occured to you: It doesn t seem that the formal operations stage is something everyone actually gets to. Even those of us who do don t operate in it at all times. Even some cultures, it seems, don t develop it or value it like ours does. Abstract reasoning is simply not universal. [Answer to the card question: The E and the 7. The E must have an even number on the back -- that much is obvious; the 7 is odd, so it cannot have a vowel on the other side -- that would be against the rule! But the rule says nothing about what has to be on the back of a consonant such as the K, nor does it say that the 4 must have a vowel on the other side!] PSY 201. Prof. Eric Shiraev Autistic Disorder. Diagnostic Criteria DSM-IV TR A. A total of six (or more) items from (1),(2), and (3), with at least two from (1), and one each from (2) and (3): (1) qualitative impairment in social interaction, as manifested by at least two of the following: (a) marked impairment in the use of multiple nonverbal behaviors such as eye-to-eye gaze, facial expression, body postures, and gestures to regulate social interaction (b) failure to develop peer relationships appropriate to developmental level (c) a lack of spontaneous seeking to share enjoyment, interests, or achievements with other people (e.g.,by a lack of showing, bringing, or pointing out objects of interest) (d) lack of social or emotional reciprocity (2) qualitative impairments in communication as manifested by at least one of the following: (a) delay in, or total lack of, the development of spoken language (not accompanied by an attempt to compensate through alternative modes of communication such as gesture or mime) (b) in individuals with adequate speech, marked impairment in the ability to initiate or sustain a conversation with others (c) stereotyped and repetitive use of language or idiosyncratic language (d) lack of varied, spontaneous make-believe play or social imitative play appropriate to developmental level (3) restricted repetitive and stereotyped patterns of behavior, interests, and activities, as manifested by at least one of the following: (a) encompassing preoccupation with one or more stereotyped and restricted patterns of interest that is abnormal either in intensity or focus (b) apparently inflexible adherence to specific, nonfunctional routines or rituals (c) stereotyped and repetitive motor mannerisms (e.g. hand or finger flapping or twisting, or complex whole-body movements) (d) persistent preoccupation with parts of objects B. Delays or abnormal functioning in at least one of the following areas, with onset prior to age 3 years: (1) social interaction, (2) language as used in social communication, or (3) symbolic or imaginative play. C. The disturbance is not better accounted for by Rett's Disorder or Childhood Disintegrative Disorder. PSY 201. Prof. Eric Shiraev Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Inattention. In adolescents, forgetfulness, persistent lack of concentration, and other symptoms are frequently associated with low self-esteem, pessimistic thoughts, withdrawal, and other forms of behavioral avoidance. Hyperactivity. In adolescents, many symptoms of hyperactivity are viewed by peers and adults as signs of immaturity or impulse-control problems; negative evaluations affect a young person’s selfimage. Impulsivity. In adolescents, impulsivity (lack of planning behavior) frequently causes interpersonal conflicts and adds to other behavioral problems Attachment Anxiety (also known as Separation Anxiety) Recurrent or excessive distress when separation (from home or a person) occurs or is anticipated. Persistent and excessive worry about possible harm (death, injury, kidnapping, etc.) to a person of attachment. Persistent refusal to perform certain activities because of fear of separation from the attachment person. Repeated nightmares involving the theme of separation. Repeated complaints of physical symptoms (such as headaches, abdominal pains, nausea, or vomiting) when separation from major attachment persons occurs or is anticipated. Stuttering Stuttering is a communication disorder characterized by excessive involuntary disruptions in the smooth or rhythmic flow of speech, particularly when such disruptions consist of repetitions or prolongations of a sound or syllable, and when they are accompanied by emotions such as fear and anxiety, and behaviors such as avoidance and struggle. PSY 201. Prof. Eric Shiraev Diagnostic criteria for Stuttering A. Disturbance in the normal fluency and time patterning of speech (inappropriate for the individual's age), characterized by frequent occurrences of one or more of the following: (1) sound and syllable repetitions (2) sound prolongations (3) interjections (4) broken words (e.g., pauses within a word) (5) audible or silent blocking (filled or unfilled pauses in speech) (6) circumlocutions (word substitutions to avoid problematic words) (7) words produced with an excess of physical tension (8) monosyllabic whole-word repetitions (e.g., "And-and-and-and… I left") B. The disturbance in fluency interferes with academic or occupational achievement or with social communication. C. If a speech-motor or sensory deficit is present, the speech difficulties are in excess of those usually associated with these problems. Source: DSM-IV-TR Tourette's Disorder: Diagnostic criteria Both multiple motor and one or more vocal tics have been present at some time during the illness, although not necessarily concurrently. (A tic is a sudden, rapid, recurrent, non-rhythmic, stereotyped motor movement or vocalization.) The tics occur many times a day (usually in bouts) nearly every day or intermittently throughout a period of more than 1 year, and during this period there was never a tic-free period of more than 3 consecutive months. The disturbance is not due to the direct physiological effects of a substance or a general medical condition PSY 201. Prof. Eric Shiraev Negative impact of these symptoms on the child’s well-being: Multiple negative self-images contribute to a negative self-concept; Negative self-concept contributes to avoidant or aggressive coping; Dysfunctional coping contribute to stigmatization; Stigmatization contributes to social isolation and negative selfimages; Psychological outcomes: Elevated anxiety, depressive symptoms, impulsivity, compulsions, and self-injurious behavior. ...
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This note was uploaded on 02/28/2011 for the course PSY 201 taught by Professor Eric during the Spring '11 term at Northern Virginia Community College.

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