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sg - HelpingOthers EmotionalSupport...

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Helping Others Review of Social Support Types of Social Support Emotional Support hugs, listening to others, crying, etc. Appraisal Support helping another to understand an event more Informational Support Providing information that another person might need Recreational Support fun activities Tangible Assistance money, transportation, etc. Helping Others What is altruism? Who do you help? Why do you help others? Why don’t you help others? Definition of Altruism Origin:  Auguste Comte (1800s) of or to others; what is another’s  Consideration for other people without any thought of self (Webster’s Dictionary) Behavior that does not benefit the self (may harm) Strict Definition:  Organism incurs a fitness cost in the course of providing others with a fitness  benefit Theories of Altruism Evolutionary Perspective activities/traits exist that perpetuate survival/genes Kinship Selection (furthers your genes) animals and humans have a tendency to help family more Burnstein et al. (1984) Reciprocal Altruism help so that others will help us later
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Kinship Altruism Empathy - Altruism Hypothesis Daniel Batson altruism is motivated  by another’s welfare  if you get a reward from it, it is still altruism if motivated by the other’s welfare Altruism is a consequence of Empathy : Cognitive:  perspective taking Emotional:  your own distress AND feeling other’s pain Empathy-Altruism Hypothesis Social Perspectives of Helping We help others because we are rewarded for the behavior Norm of social responsibility - people should help All altruistic acts are selfish because we get positive emotions/praise from the act (or punishment  from not helping). Those who give report higher self esteem, self efficacy, lower depression, less stress. Benefits of Giving to Others Tendency to Give Social Support Schwartz & Sendor (1999) Multiple Sclerosis Patients Response shift Litwin (1998) giving support by elderly Experience Corps Proposed Pathways for Relationship between EC Participation & Health Giving & Well-Being Why is giving to others related to health? Results in strengthened relationships & more received social support Response shift occurs (MS patients; Schwartz & Sendor) Main effect on mood, which can lead to better coping, health behaviors, or direct effects on  physiology Increased Self-efficacy and better coping with stress Increased activity/exercise Increased cognitive stimulation
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Gratitude http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Ic2NywPcjpU     Gratitude & Well-Being
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