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Unformatted text preview: Sigmund Freud 1927 cover 1939 cover 1856 1939 “It is a mistake to believe that a science consists in nothing but conclusively proved propositions, and it is unjust to demand that it should. It is a demand only made by those who feel a craving for authority in some form and a need to replace the religious catechism by something else, even if it be a scientific one. Science in its catechism has but few apodictic precepts; it consists mainly of statements which it has developed to varying degrees of probability. The capacity to be content with these approximations to certainty and the ability to carry on constructive work despite the lack of final confirmation are actually a mark of the scientific habit of mind.” Sigmund Freud Popularization of Unconscious – Unconscious proper, preconscious, conscious 2. Development of Id, Ego, Superego – Id contains Life & Death instincts
1. Overview of Freud’s Theory Stages of Psychosexual development Defense Mechanisms 3. Treatment Techniques – Dream analysis, free association, psychoanalysis, analysis of transference, analysis of resistance, parapraxes.
1. 2. Stages of Psychosexual Development – Based on meeting the needs of each stage Fixation can develop focuses on erogenous zone (part of body to be gratified). STAGES: 1. Oral Stage (first 18 months of life) 2. Anal Stage (18 months 3 years) 3. Phallic Stage (36 years) Oedipus and Electra Complex 4. Latency (6puberty) 5. Genital Stage (puberty) Oral Stage (0 – 18 months) – Food needs must be satisfied (weaning is the crisis of this period) – Oralpassive character: dependent on others, reliance on oral gratifications (smoke, eat) – Oral Aggressive character: bite nails, sarcastic (due to weaning b/c you were biting mom) Anal Stage (2 years) – Toilet training brings punishment and rewards – Strict Parent: child becomes clean, perfectionist, stubborn (anal retentive) – Grateful Parent: child becomes generous, creative, disorganized, sloppy (anal expulsive). Phallic Stage (36 years) – Boys: Oedipus Complex – sexual desires for mom – jealousy/hatred/fear of dad Castration anxiety when boys realize girls have “lost” their penis (stop wanting mom; start identifying with dad to learn how to get mom/other women) – Girls: Penis Envy: expressed in wanting to be a boy or wanting to marry later Female Oedipus Complex (Electra Complex) – Desire towards mom, then hostility towards mom for bringing her into the world without a penis. – Turns desires to dad in attempt to get a penis (identifies with mom) – Phallic personality Latency (6/7 till 12ish) If indulged vain, narcissistic, failure to identify with opposite sex parent If rejected by parents withdrawn or outwardly sexual, poor self esteem, overly masculine/feminine Stages Genital Stage (puberty) – Life instinct is directed towards others now that one can reproduce first described by Freud in 1926; refined/organized by daughter Anna in 1946 Purpose is to avoid dealing with instincts/drives and accompanying anxiety Repression
– Forcing threatening feelings into unconscious – Behavioral enactment of the opposite desire – Redirecting unacceptable urges onto someone/something else – When the id wants to do something that the superego won’t allow – Becoming “stuck” in a certain stage b/c of unresolved conflict in that stage – Reverting to a previous developmental stage – Seeing your own tendencies in someone else – Seeing positive values of other people in yourself Defense Mechanisms Reaction Formation Displacement Fixation Regression Projection Introjection What do you see? ...
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This note was uploaded on 02/28/2011 for the course PSYC 200.209 taught by Professor Rachelpfeiri during the Spring '11 term at Johns Hopkins.
- Spring '11