Class6_SyntaxPart2

Class6_SyntaxPart2 - Syntax II Beyond C-selection Ling 1...

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Syntax II: Beyond C-selection Ling 1 Class 6, Week 3 S. Shademan
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Housecleaning ± Today, we will finish chapter 4. ± Thursday, we will cover chapter 5. ± HW3 (syntax) is due in sections. ± Take advantage of office hours! ± Midterm Exam: a week from today.
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Reminder: Heads & Complements ± Every XP has a head . ² E.g., V is the head of VP. ± An XP may also contain a complement . ² A sister to the head that completes its meaning. ± The type of complement depends on the head.
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C-selection (Subcategorization) ± Some verbs (transitive) require a direct object NP ² e.g., catch, hit ± Some verbs (intransitive) do not take an object ² e.g., dance, bark ± Some verbs require a PP complement, in addition to a direct object NP ² e.g., give, put ± Some verbs take a sentential complement ² e.g., think, know
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Intransitive Verbs VP ± V
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Verbs With NP Complement ± VP ± V NP
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Verbs with Sentential (CP) Complement VP ± V CP CP ± C S
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Is Every Constituent a Requirement? ± Shabnam danced. ± What about: Shabnam danced in the library .
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Is This The Right Structure? S NP VP V PP Shabnam danced P NP in DET N the library
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Hmm….Let’s Compare ± Shabnam danced. ± Shabnam danced in the library . ± Shabnam put the book.
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Hmm….Let’s Compare ± Shabnam danced. ± Shabnam danced in the library . ± * Shabnam put the book. ± Shabnam put the book on the shelf .
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± The tall student danced. ± Where does tall go in the tree? ± Could this be a PS rule? NP Æ Adj NP S NP VP Adj NP Tall danced DET N the student Yikes!!
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Only One Determiner ± A noun never has more than one determiner ² The tree ² * A the tree
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Multiple Adjectives ± A noun can have multiple adjectives ² The green tree ² The tall green tree ² The beautiful tall green tree
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A Theoretical Solution ± Introducing an additional level of structure between XP and X: ² X-bar XP SPEC X’ X COMP
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Ugh, More Structure? ± Yes, this is where phrases that are not selected by the head (c-selection) attach: ² Shabnam danced in the library . ² The tall student put the book on the shelf.
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Is There Only One X’ Level? ± No, X-bar level is recursive. ² XP has one head . ² Complements to the head are specifically selected (c-selection). ² There can be multiple X-bar levels. ² SPEC (what is this??) and X’ = sisters ² Head (X) and complement(s) = sisters
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The Tall Student NP DET N’ the AdjP N’ tall N Student
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The Tall Handsome Student NP DET N’ the AdjP N’ tall AdjP N’ handsome N student
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What About S?
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Class6_SyntaxPart2 - Syntax II Beyond C-selection Ling 1...

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