Phonology_cheat_sheet

Phonology_cheat_sheet - Ling 1 phonology cheat sheet Laura...

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Ling 1 phonology cheat sheet – Laura McPherson 1 Phonology: what you need to know 1. Minimal pairs, phonemes, and allophones Minimal pair: A pair of words that differ in only one sound. These tell us that the sounds that differ are phonemes (a distinctive sound of the language). Example: pat/bat, skin/spin, boot/boom, boot/beat, chuckle/knuckle If a phonetic distinction does not create any minimal pairs, the two sounds are called allophones . o [k h at] cot vs. [skat] Scott o [k h ] and [k] are allophones of /k/ in English. We can say that aspiration is allophonic . o But this is not universal! /k h / and /k/ are phonemes in Thai. Why? Because there are minimal pairs: /k h ày/ egg vs. /kày/ chicken. 2. Complementary distribution and environments If two allophones never occur in the same environment, we say they are in complementary distribution. Their distributions together should account for all possible environments in the language. Let’s go back to aspiration. [k h ] occurs at the beginning of stressed syllables: o [k h ip], [k h argow], [k h ±l ә bre ɪ t], etc. [k] occurs after /s/ or the beginning of unstressed syllables:
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Phonology_cheat_sheet - Ling 1 phonology cheat sheet Laura...

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