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Syntax_Cheat_Sheet_-_Updated - Syntax cheat-sheet UPDATED...

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Syntax cheat-sheet – UPDATED EVERY time you see one of these phrase types, the tree will look as shown below (with the exception of added X’ levels for modifiers, as discussed at the end of this handout). This is an update from last week’s cheat sheet. The main changes are: The S root node looks slightly di ff erent – there is now an extra VP layer which contains a place for auxiliaries (can, could, should, may, must, will, be, have, etc.) and tense (past and present). Modifiers and X’ levels (see end of handout). Note: you ONLY have to add in X’ levels when you need them (i.e., when there are modifiers), though you will not be penalized if you include unnecessary X’ levels. The Root (Sentence) Node: S NP subject VP Aux tense(past/present)/auxiliaries VP V verb XP complement(s) General Schema (for all phrases with no modifiers): XP X head YP complement Noun Phrase (no modifiers): NP Det the/a/some/ N noun 1
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Intransitive Verb Phrase (no object, no modifiers): VP V verb(fall/leave/sing/etc.)
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