Anth-202-fal-10-L09-Humans Expand

Anth-202-fal-10-L09-Humans Expand - Anthropology 202(502):...

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(Lecture # 9, September 30, 2010) Early Tools and Human Dispersal: Homo erectus and H. ( s ?) neanderthalensis I. The Origin of Tool Use A. Tool Use by Animals: Most evidence for tool manufacture and use come from studies of chimpanzees and other great apes 1. Jane Goodall was the first to document tool use by chimpanzees 2. Widely accepted observational evidence: a. Jane Goodall was the first to document tool use by chimpanzees b. Using stone hammers and anvils to crack nuts B. Archaeological Evidence 1. Oldest known stone tools date to 2.5 million years ago a. They were found in the Hadar region, Ethiopia b. They were found in the Hadar region, Ethiopia c. The major types of tools are sharp-edged flakes and cores, including choppers 2. Stone tools from Lokalalei, Kenya date to 2.3 million years ago a. Stone tools from Lokalalei, Kenya date to 2.3 million years ago b. These tools indicate that early tool manufacture followed a clear and consistent strategy II. Lower Paleolithic Tool Industries A. Oldowan: Oldest well-characterized tool industry 1. Dates to between 1.9 and 1.15 m.y.a 2. Which hominin(s) are responsible for making these tools is uncertain: Paranthropus, Homo habilis , and Homo erectus all lived during the Oldowan period 3. Characteristic Oldowan tool is the chopper: made by taking a rounded stone and striking flakes off one edge B. The Acheulian: Second oldest well-characterized tool industry 1. Dates to between 1.7 m.y.a. and 400,000 to 200,000 years ago 2. Acheulian sites found throughout Africa and in Europe, the Middle East, and India 3. Acheulian appears at the same time as the emergence of Homo erectus and extinction of Homo habilis III. Were Early Hominins Hunters?
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Anth-202-fal-10-L09-Humans Expand - Anthropology 202(502):...

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