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Anth-202-fal-10-L10-Neanderthal-Early Hs (1)

Anth-202-fal-10-L10-Neanderthal-Early Hs (1) - Anthropology...

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Anthropology 202(502): Introduction to Archaeology (Lecture # 10, October 5, 2010) I. Pleistocene—ca. 1.8 m.y.a. until 11,000 radiocarbon years ago—ecological contexts A Lower Pleistocene: 1.6 million to 730,000 years B.P – Homo erectus 1 Glaciations at 2.5 mya, but geomagnetic reversal marks beginning at 1.6 mya, followed by periods of change (warmer, then cooler, then warmer) 2 Other species change too: especially notable is the "appearance" of wild forms of horses, cattle, and camels, as well as elephants 3. Earth's magnetic field’s last shift back to "normal:" Matuyama/Brunhes boundary @ ca. 780,000 years ago; more climatic fluctuations B. Middle Pleistocene: 730,000 to 128,000 years ago; Homo erectus , Neanderthal, and “archaic” Homo sapiens Climate change: glacial and interglacial periods; human settlement of temperate zone during interglacial periods Speciation of African monkeys correlates with habitat changes C. The Pleistocene, or Ice Age--a geological era 1.8 mya rs ago until 11,000 year ago; context in which Homo erectus spread and Neanderthals evolved 1. Oxygen Isotope Curve for the last 800,000 years exemplifies the Pleistocene as periods of significant buildup of ice sheets, or glacial eras, 2. Separated by periods when the ice sheets retreated, or interglacial eras II. Pre-Neanderthal Technology, Etc. A. Eurpope: Atapuerca (Homo antecessor ) and Isernia la Pineta (Homo ?): 800,000, 700,000, respectively; cores and flakes—no handaxes B. Eurasian Acheulian out of Africa and to China—Bose site—by 800,000 yrs. ago C. Very little Acheulian east of India; may indicate use of bamboo in place of many types of stone tools D. Clactonian flake-tool industy in England; 350,000 + B.P.; edged/sharpened flakes of many shapes and sizes E. Sparse evidence of either artwork or ritual behavior in Lower Paleolithic contexts with two exceptions: 1. Small pebble of volcanic rock with evidence of human work on it found at Berekhat Ram, Golan Heights; 230,000 yrs old; possible human female
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