Anth-202-fal-10-L11-Old World Modern H

Anth-202-fal-10-L11-Old World Modern H - Anthropology...

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Anthropology 202(500): Introduction to Archaeology Lecture 11, October 07, 2010: Old World Modern Humans: Out of Africa Part II I. Early Modern Humans: The Middle East A Crossroads of the continents, as it lies geographically at the intersection of Europe, Asia, and Africa B. Neanderthals and Modern Humans coexisted there; important research questions: 1. Are there characteristics that distinguish modern human and Neanderthal sites in the area? 2. What is the chronological relationship between modern humans and Neanderthals? C. Data show Neanderthals were not a precursor of modern humans D. Data indicate Neanderthals evolved in parallel with modern humans E. Modern humans did not expand beyond the Middle East before 60-70,000 yrs. ago F. Neanderthals became extinct in the Middle East around 40,000 years ago II. Three Scenarios for the Demise of The Neanderthals: A. Multiregional: Neanderthals evolved locally into modern humans as the result of a continuous gene flow between European and African populations B. Out-of-Africa: Neanderthal populations in Europe were replaced by modern humans 30,000-40,000 years ago C. Hybridization: Neanderthals “disappeared” as a result of substantial interbreeding between populations III. Fossil Records Pertaining to the Demise of Neanderthals A. No tendency toward modern human traits among late Neanderthal populations in Europe, which provides support for the Out-of-Africa scenario B. Neanderthals, as recent as 36,000 years ago, had no modern characteristics, which undermines the Multiregional scenario C. Persistence of Neanderthal traits until arrival of modern humans, is predicted (i.e., supports) the Hybridization scenario 1
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IV. Genetic Evidence—DNA studies—from Neanderthals Supports Out-of-Africa Model A. Analyses of mitochondrial DNA of living humans identify Africa as the place of
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Anth-202-fal-10-L11-Old World Modern H - Anthropology...

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