Anth-202-fal-10-L15 Domestication N-Amer

Anth-202-fal-10-L15 Domestication N-Amer - Anthropology...

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Anthropology 202(502): Introduction to Archaeology Lecture 15, October 21, 2010 Domestication in North America I. By 12,000 yrs B.P., humankind had spread throughout most of the world; colonization of Circumpolar regions by 6000 B.P.; Pacific Islands occupied by 1500 - 1000 yrs. B.P.; agriculture underway by ca. 10,000 B.P. in Old World and ca. 8000 B.P. in New World II. Through the Millennia There Have Been Significant Changes in the Way American Indians and Humans in General Have Used the Landscape and Made Their Living A. Plant domestication underway by 10,000 B.P.; in North America (N. of Mexico), oily seed plants (e.g., sunflower; amaranth, marsh elder) were domesticated by 4000 B.P. and corn, beans, and squash were introduced by 2000 B.P. (AD 1) B. Domesticated animals in pre-Columbian North America (North of Mexico) included only dogs and turkeys III. A. Dental, genetic, & linguistic data suggest several migrations from Beringia: ca. 14,000 B.P.+ by Amerindian (aka Paleoindian, as per text early Paleoindian = pre 15,000 B.P.), then Athabaskan (Na-Dene) & Inuit-Aleut (aka paleo-Eskimo) by ca. 6000 B.P. B. New genetic & bioarchaeological evidence suggest possible migrations from N. Europe (Clovis culture or earlier) to N. Amer.; south-cen. and south Asia to South America; Africa to Brazil; debate on nature of First Americans continues C. Pre-Clovis, 40/25,000+/-12,000 yrs B.P. stone tools, most evidence is equivocal (e.g., Meadowcroft [Penn.], elsewhere in the Americas) but the concept is widely accepted IV. Earliest Hunters-Gatherers, Paleoindian Period: Low Pop. Density, Highly Mobile, Live from "Cream of the Land" (Game, Fish, Shellfish, Plants); Spear, Possibly Atlatl and Dart A. Sometime - megafauna hunters (mammoth, bison, horse, camel): Clovis (first well-documented culture in North America) and Folsom projectile points: 11,500- 10,500 B.P. 1. Newberry Mammoth site (excavated by TAMU), Brazos R. near B/CS 2. Wilson-Leonard Site (excavated by UT) near Austin; bison and camel remains B. Later Paleoindians (modern bison: plains; deer: savannah; roots, nuts everywhere), e.g., Eden (aka, Plano tradition) and Dalton points: 10,500 -10,000/8000 B.P. domestic dog (Jaguar Cave, ID) 1
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1. Dalton sites in Arkansas and lower Mississippi Basin, ca. 9000 BP, presages pending Archaic period with dependence on deer, small game, and plant foods 2. Eden sites in Kansas and plains show continuation of bison hunting and mobility through ca. 8000 B.P. 3.
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Anth-202-fal-10-L15 Domestication N-Amer - Anthropology...

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