Anth-202-fal-10-L16-Domestication Elsewhere (1)

Anth-202-fal-10-L16-Domestication Elsewhere (1) -...

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Anthropology 202(502): Introduction to Archaeology Lecture 16, October 26, 2010 Transition to Domestication Elsewhere in the World I. Development of Agriculture in Africa A. Indigenous plant domestication occurred in three major regions 1. Northeast Africa: tef, finger millet, and coffee 2. Central Africa—pearl millet, sorghum 3. West Africa—African rice B. Domesticated plants introduced from the Middle East: wheat, barley, lentils C. Domesticated animals introduced from the Middle East were sheep and goats D. Considerable debate surrounds the origin of domesticated cattle in Africa E. Sahara Desert: current desert environment developed in the Sahara only within the last 4,000-5,000 years 1. Between 14,000 and 4,500 years ago there was considerably more rainfall in the Sahara 2. Extensive human occupation was possible before it became a desert F. Small villages of hunter-gatherers existed across northern Africa (the Sahara) during the period of increased rainfall 1. Such sites resemble Natufian sites in the Middle East in several ways: their size, the nature of the structures on them, the exploitation of a wide range of resources, the use of grinding stones 2. African also differ from Natufian sites in significant ways: pottery and large numbers of storage pits are commonly found on African sites—not in Natufian period G. African Pastoralists 1. Domesticated animals were introduced before domesticated plants in much of North Africa 2. Cattle, sheep, and goats appear to have been incorporated into mobile
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