omisHardware - Technical Foundations of Technical...

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Unformatted text preview: Technical Foundations of Technical Information Systems Information ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ Computers and Information Processing Computers and Information Processing 1 Bits, Bytes, and Binary s ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ Character Representation – A Bit is a single Binary Digit....0 or 1 Bit ...the Bit is either “OFF” or “ON”. Computers and Information Processing 2 Bits, Bytes, and Binary s ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ Character Representation – – A Bit is a single Binary Digit....0 or 1 ...the Bit is either “OFF” or “ON”. A Byte is a collection of 8 Bits Byte 1010 0001 0101 0000 1011 1010 0101 1001 Computers and Information Processing 3 Bits, Bytes, and Binary s ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ 4 Character Representation – – – A Bit is a single Binary Digit....0 or 1 ...the Bit is either “OFF” or “ON”. A Byte is a collection of 8 Bits. A Byte represents one character iin a n Byte represents one computer character set. computer 1010 0001 = A 1011 1010 = Z 0101 0000 = 0 0101 1001 = 9 Computers and Information Processing ___________________________________ ___________________________________ Bits, Bytes, and Binary s ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ Character Representation – Standard Binary Character Sets • • Extended Binary Coded Decimal Interchange Extended Code....EBCDIC (IBM) Code.... American Standard Code for Information American Interchange....ASCII Interchange.... Computers and Information Processing 5 Bits, Bytes, and Binary s ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ 6 Character Representation – Standard Binary Character Sets • • Extended Binary Coded Decimal Interchange Extended Code....EBCDIC (IBM) Code.... American Standard Code for Information American Interchange....ASCII Interchange.... EBCDIC ASCII Examples: 1100 0001 = A = 1010 0001 1110 1001 = Z = 1011 1010 Computers and Information Processing ___________________________________ ___________________________________ Bits, Bytes, and Binary s ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ True Binary Numeric Representation – – Standard for ALL computer systems....no Standard conversion necessary between platforms. conversion Each Binary Digit (Bit Position) represents Each a BASE-2 Multiplier BASE Computers and Information Processing 7 Bits, Bytes, and Binary s ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ 8 True Binary Numeric Representation – Each Binary Digit (Bit Position) represents Each a BASE-2 Multiplier. BASE BASE-10 Example....TO CONTRAST 123 - One Hundred and Twenty Three 3* 1= 3 2 * 10 = 20 1 * 100 = 100 ==== 123 Computers and Information Processing ___________________________________ ___________________________________ Bits, Bytes, and Binary s ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ 9 True Binary Numeric Representation – Each Binary Digit (Bit Position) represents Each a BASE-2 Multiplier. BASE BASE-2 Example 0000 1100 - What Decimal Number is This ? 0 0 1 1 * * * * 1 2 4 8 = = = = 0 0 4 8 === 12 First Digit (Most Right) Second Third Fourth Computers and Information Processing ___________________________________ ___________________________________ Bits, Bytes, and Binary s ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ 10 True Binary Numeric Representation – – Each Binary Digit (Bit Position) represents Each a BASE-@ BASE Positional Values Continue on Up by Positional Powers of d : Powers 128 0 1 0 1 1 4 1 2 1 1 32 8 4 2 +1 === 175 1 128 64 32 16 8 Computers and Information Processing ___________________________________ ___________________________________ Microcomputer Hardware sHardware ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ 11 Components Central Processor… the ”Brains” of system Systems Clock… the ”Heart-Beat” of system Primary Storage… the “Active” data & programs Secondary Storage… the “Passive” data & programs Bus Structures… the ”Road-Ways” of the system Input/Output Devices… the “Interfaces” of the system Computers and Information Processing ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ...
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