ch2 - CHAPTER2 QUALITATIVEPHASEBEHAVIOR (PVTBEHAVIOR)...

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CHAPTER 2  QUALITATIVE PHASE BEHAVIOR QUALITATIVE PHASE BEHAVIOR (PVT BEHAVIOR) (PVT BEHAVIOR) Some Definitions: Phase Phase diagram Component Intensive properties Extensive properties 2 - 1
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System Equilibrium Phase A phase  is any homogeneous and physically  distinct part of a system which is separated from  other parts of the system by boundaries. Examples:  Consider the following systems: 1. A sealed vessel containing ice, liquid water  and water vapor contains 3 phases of water. 2 - 2
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2. A   natural   gas   consisting   of   95   mole%   of  methane, 3 mole% of ethane and 2 mole % of  hydrogen   sulfide   contains   one   phase  (gaseous phase). 3. A test tube containing water in the bottom  half and an immiscible crude oil in the upper  half contains two phases. 2 - 3
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Phase Diagram A phase   diagram   is a graphic presentation  that   shows   the   conditions   under   which   the  various phases of a substance may be present. Examples: Pressure-temperature  diagram (P-T diagram) Pressure-volume diagram  (P-V diagram) Temperature-composition  diagram (T-X diagram) 2 - 4
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Ternary diagram 2 - 5
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Component A component  is the smallest number of  independently variable constituent by means of  which the composition of each phase can be  expressed in a system at equilibrium. Examples:  Consider the following systems: 1. A sealed vessel containing ice, liquid water  and water vapor contains 3 phases of water  but one component (H 2 O). 2. A   natural   gas   consisting   of   95   mole%   of  methane, 3 mole% of ethane and 2 mole % of  hydrogen   sulfide   contains   one   phase  (gaseous   phase)   but   3   components  (methane, ethane and hydrogen sulfide). 2 - 6
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3. A test tube containing water in the bottom  half and an immiscible crude oil in the upper  half   contains   two   phases   but   many  components   (water   and   all   the   many  components of the crude oil). 2 - 7
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Intensive Properties Intensive properties   are those properties  that are independent of the quantity of material  present.  Examples: Pressure  Temperature Composition Density Specific volume (vol/mass  or vol/mole) 2 - 8
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Can you name other examples of an  intensive property? 2 - 9
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Extensive properties  are those properties  that depend on the quantity of material present.  Examples: Mass  Volume Total energy Can you name other examples of an  extensive property? 2 -
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ch2 - CHAPTER2 QUALITATIVEPHASEBEHAVIOR (PVTBEHAVIOR)...

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