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lecture 2 - 7 basic parts of the CNS Spinal cord medulla...

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7 basic parts of the CNS Spinal cord • medulla • pons brainstem • midbrain • cerebellum • diencephalon cerebral hemishperes forebrain
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The Subdivisions and Components of the Central Nervous System • PN01101.JPG
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Spinal cord Extends from the base of the skull to the first lumbar vertebra. Receives sensory info from skin, joints, and muscles of trunk and limbs, and contains motor neurons responsible for both voluntary and reflex movements. Nerve fibers bundled in 31 pairs of spinal nerves, a sensory division (dorsal root ganglia) and a motor division (ventral root). Is thicker in regions that innervate the limbs.
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Internal anatomy of the spinal cord
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Internal anatomy of the spinal cord Contains both white and grey matter. Grey matter shaped like an “H”. Dorsal horns and ventral horns. Dorsal horns contain sensory relay neurons, receives input from periphery Ventral horns contains motor nuclei that innervate muscles-send output White matter contains longitudinal tracts of ascending and descending axons grouped together by function.
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Spinal cord tracts Dorsal column-sensory info travels up it to the brain. Lateral columns-also called the cortico- spinal tracts. Take info from brain and send it to the muscles. Ventral columns (sometimes called anterolateral column)- carry pain info up and motor info down.
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Internal Structure of the Spinal Cord • PN01112.JPG
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General rules of spinal cord organization neurons and axons that process and relay sensory information are found dorsally preganglionic visceral motor neurons are found in an intermediate/lateral region somatic motor neurons and axons are found in the ventral portion of the cord.
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Brainstem medulla-regulates blood pressure and respiration pons-ventral- pontine nuclei, relay info from cortex to cerebellum, dorsal-respiration taste and sleep midbrain- auditory and visual systems, substantia nigra (dopanergic neurons). Deteriorates in Parkinson’s disease.
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Close up of the brain stem
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Brain stem Target or source for all cranial nerves that deal with sensory and motor function in the head and neck. Nuclei within brainstem are the targets and sources of these nerves. Also is a throughway which all info going up and down must pass. Because of its small area and restricted blood supply-it is very susceptible to damage.
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Parkinson’s- loss of dopamine making neurons in the midbrain
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The brainstem is all you need to live Mike, as everyone knows, was the arguably lucky fowl who survived a beheading by a Colorado farmer in 1945, thriving for 18 months with only a brain stem. Fed on corn dropped directly into his gullet, Mike choked to death during a sideshow tour in 1947, when the farmer — after forging a new and profitable relationship with Mike — was unable to clear his esophagus, having forgotten to bring along the eyedropper he used for that purpose.
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cerebellum
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Cerebellum two hemispheres, several lobes divided by fissures neurons in sheets, called cortex.
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