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intro-linux - Introduction to Linux A Hands on Guide...

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Introduction to Linux A Hands on Guide Machtelt Garrels Xalasys.com <tille wants no spam _at_ xalasys dot com> Version 1.23 20060725 Edition Copyright © 2002, 2003, 2004, 2005, 2006 Machtelt Garrels First published December 2002
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Table of Contents Introduction ......................................................................................................................................................... 1 1. Why this guide? ................................................................................................................................... 1 2. Who should read this book? ................................................................................................................. 1 3. New versions and availability .............................................................................................................. 1 4. Revision History .................................................................................................................................. 2 5. Contributions ....................................................................................................................................... 4 6. Feedback .............................................................................................................................................. 4 7. Copyright information ......................................................................................................................... 5 8. What do you need? ............................................................................................................................... 5 9. Conventions used in this document ..................................................................................................... 5 10. Organization of this document ........................................................................................................... 6 Chapter 1. What is Linux? ................................................................................................................................. 8 1.1. History .............................................................................................................................................. 8 1.1.1. UNIX ....................................................................................................................................... 8 1.1.2. Linus and Linux ....................................................................................................................... 9 1.1.3. Current application of Linux systems ................................................................................... 10 1.2. The user interface ............................................................................................................................ 10 1.2.1. Is Linux difficult? .................................................................................................................. 10 1.2.2. Linux for non-experienced users .......................................................................................... 11 1.3. Does Linux have a future? .............................................................................................................. 11 1.3.1. Open Source .......................................................................................................................... 11 1.3.2. Ten years of experience at your service ................................................................................ 12 1.4. Properties of Linux ......................................................................................................................... 13 1.4.1. Linux Pros ............................................................................................................................. 13 1.4.2. Linux Cons ............................................................................................................................ 14 1.5. Linux Flavors .................................................................................................................................. 15 1.5.1. Linux and GNU ..................................................................................................................... 15 1.5.2. GNU/Linux ............................................................................................................................ 16 1.5.3. Which distribution should I install? ...................................................................................... 16 1.6. Summary ......................................................................................................................................... 17 1.7. Exercises ......................................................................................................................................... 17 Chapter 2. Quickstart ....................................................................................................................................... 19 2.1. Logging in, activating the user interface and logging out .............................................................. 19 2.1.1. Introduction ........................................................................................................................... 19 2.1.2. Graphical mode ..................................................................................................................... 19 2.1.3. Text mode .............................................................................................................................. 21 2.2. Absolute basics ............................................................................................................................... 21 2.2.1. The commands ...................................................................................................................... 21 2.2.2. General remarks .................................................................................................................... 22 2.2.3. Using Bash features ............................................................................................................... 23 2.3. Getting help ..................................................................................................................................... 24 2.3.1. Be warned .............................................................................................................................. 24 2.3.2. The man pages ....................................................................................................................... 24 2.3.3. More info ............................................................................................................................... 26 2.4. Summary ......................................................................................................................................... 29 2.5. Exercises ......................................................................................................................................... 29 Introduction to Linux i
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Table of Contents Chapter 2. Quickstart 2.5.1. Connecting and disconnecting ............................................................................................... 30 2.5.2. Passwords .............................................................................................................................. 30 2.5.3. Directories ............................................................................................................................. 30 2.5.4. Files ....................................................................................................................................... 31 2.5.5. Getting help ........................................................................................................................... 31 Chapter 3. About files and the file system ...................................................................................................... 33 3.1. General overview of the Linux file system ..................................................................................... 33 3.1.1. Files ....................................................................................................................................... 33 3.1.2. About partitioning ................................................................................................................. 35 3.1.3. More file system layout ......................................................................................................... 38 3.2. Orientation in the file system .......................................................................................................... 41 3.2.1. The path ................................................................................................................................. 41 3.2.2. Absolute and relative paths ................................................................................................... 43 3.2.3. The most important files and directories ............................................................................... 43 3.2.4. The most important configuration files ................................................................................. 46 3.2.5. The most common devices .................................................................................................... 47 3.2.6. The most common variable files ........................................................................................... 48 3.3. Manipulating files ........................................................................................................................... 49 3.3.1. Viewing file properties .......................................................................................................... 49 3.3.2. Creating and deleting files and directories ............................................................................ 52 3.3.3. Finding files ........................................................................................................................... 55 3.3.4. More ways to view file content ............................................................................................. 59 3.3.5. Linking files .......................................................................................................................... 60 3.4. File security ..................................................................................................................................... 62 3.4.1. Access rights: Linux's first line of defense ............................................................................ 62 3.4.2. The tools ................................................................................................................................ 63 3.5. Summary ......................................................................................................................................... 68 3.6. Exercises ......................................................................................................................................... 70 3.6.1. Partitions ................................................................................................................................ 70 3.6.2. Paths ...................................................................................................................................... 70 3.6.3. Tour of the system ................................................................................................................. 70 3.6.4. Manipulating files .................................................................................................................. 71 3.6.5. File permissions ..................................................................................................................... 71 Chapter 4. Processes ......................................................................................................................................... 72 4.1. Processes inside out ........................................................................................................................ 72 4.1.1. Multi-user and multi-tasking ............................................................................................... 72 4.1.2. Process types ......................................................................................................................... 72 4.1.3. Process attributes ................................................................................................................... 74 4.1.4. Displaying process information ............................................................................................. 75 4.1.5. Life and death of a process .................................................................................................... 77 4.1.6. SUID and SGID ..................................................................................................................... 79 4.2. Boot process, Init and shutdown ..................................................................................................... 81 4.2.1. Introduction ........................................................................................................................... 81 4.2.2. The boot process .................................................................................................................... 81 4.2.3. GRUB features ...................................................................................................................... 81 Introduction to Linux ii
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Table of Contents Chapter 4. Processes 4.2.4. Init ......................................................................................................................................... 82 4.2.5. Init run levels ......................................................................................................................... 84 4.2.6. Shutdown ............................................................................................................................... 85 4.3. Managing processes ........................................................................................................................ 85 4.3.1. Work for the system admin ................................................................................................... 85 4.3.2. How long does it take? .......................................................................................................... 86 4.3.3. Performance ........................................................................................................................... 87 4.3.4. Load ....................................................................................................................................... 87 4.3.5. Can I do anything as a user? .................................................................................................. 87 4.4. Scheduling processes ...................................................................................................................... 92 4.4.1. Use that idle time! ................................................................................................................. 92 4.4.2. The sleep command ............................................................................................................... 92 4.4.3. The at command .................................................................................................................... 93 4.4.4. Cron and crontab ................................................................................................................... 93 4.5. Summary ......................................................................................................................................... 95 4.6. Exercises ......................................................................................................................................... 96 4.6.1. General .................................................................................................................................. 96 4.6.2. Booting, init etc ..................................................................................................................... 96 4.6.3. Scheduling .............................................................................................................................
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