Hammond and stabilities

Hammond and stabilities - Addition of Hydrogen to Alkenes...

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1 Addition of Hydrogen to Alkenes Oxidation and Reduction in Organic Chemistry • Inorganic—oxidation is loss of electrons • Organic—oxidation is loss of electron density at carbon. That is, having a more electronegative atom in the bond. • Oxidation: forming C-O, C-N, C-X and breaking C-H bonds • Reduction: forming C-H and breaking C-O, C-N and C-X bonds Oxidation State (number) and Level 4 4 CO 2 3 2 2 0 1 -2 CH 3 OH 0 -4 CH 4 Ox. Level Ox. State Compound HH O HO H O Oxygen = -2 (except in peroxides) and H = +1 (except when bonded to metals = -1) Rules for calculating oxidation number: 1. Write the Lewis structure with lone pairs 2. Assign the electrons in the covalent bond to the more electronegative atom 3. Split the electrons equally if between identical atoms 4. Take the total number of electrons and subtract the valence (neutral) electrons COH H H H C H H H H O Carbon: 4-6= -2 Oxygen: 6-8= -2 Oxidation level: just count the bonds to oxygen!
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5 Catalytic Hydrogenation of an Alkene 6
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Hammond and stabilities - Addition of Hydrogen to Alkenes...

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