03-PlantFoods

03-PlantFoods - Seeds as Foods Plants embryonic material...

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1 Plant Foods Seeds as Foods Plant’s embryonic material with food 10,000 years ago, the beginning of Agriculture The main component of seeds is starch which supplies the average person 60% of their daily calories. dietary protein in the average diet Seeds Grains –cereals are all plants from the grass family. They produce many tiny dry fruits (grains). Legumes are plants that bear several seeds in a pod. Can be eaten as a vegetable before drying Nuts comprise a category that includes the seeds of fleshly or one seeded fruits Grains Over 8,000 species in the grass family Cereals- wheat, barley, rice, millet, Production levels: wheat > corn = rice
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2 Wheat extent for livestock feed and seed extent for livestock feed and seed • Developed from a type of wild grass of Asia Developed from a type of wild grass of Asia Minor • Cultivation originated in 10,000 B.C. making Cultivation originated in 10,000 B.C. making it the oldest cereal crops it the oldest cereal crops 6 "Whole grains consist of the starchy endosperm, germ and bran.” 7 The milling process involves several rounds of grinding and sifting off coarse particles Tempered wheat Crushed wheat (flour) Milling (Grinding) Wheat to Make Flour Carbohydrates - Starch ! Amylase: enzyme(s) used to breakdown starch
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3 Carbohydrates - Starch ! Amylase: enzyme(s) used to breakdown starch to glucose and maltose ! This is especially important to brewers ! We will talk to you more about the malting processes in brewing where starch in barley is broken down to maltose and glucose in order for yeast to ferment starch into alcohol 10 Bread Flat breads can be made from flour and water leavened by steam (wheat, corn, barley) Raised bread first made in Middle East 6,000 years ago Wheat is special in its ability to make raised bread (This has to do with its proteins) Egypt 1200 BC 12
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4 Thomas Jefferson 14 Parts of a Corn Kernel Endosperm is about 82% of the kernel's dry weight and is the source of energy and protein (starch) for the germinating seed. Hull (bran) is the outer covering of the kernel that protects it from deterioration Germ is the only living part of the corn kernel. It contains the essential genetic information, enzymes, vitamins and minerals for the kernel to grow into a corn plant. About 25% of the germ is corn oil 15 Corn is separated into its components -- starch, oil, protein and fiber -- and converted into higher value products: Corn sweeteners are the most important refined corn products. Last year, corn sweeteners supplied more than 56 percent of the U.S. nutritive sweetener market. Ethanol
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This note was uploaded on 03/01/2011 for the course FST 10 taught by Professor Jack during the Fall '08 term at UC Davis.

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03-PlantFoods - Seeds as Foods Plants embryonic material...

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