9_Intro-sugars+and+sweeteners

9_Intro-sugars+and+sweeteners - FOOD SCIENCE &...

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FST10 ©GMS/GFR 2010 FOOD SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY 10 G.M. Smith “Introduction to Sugars, Sweeteners and Carbohydrates” FST10 ©GMS/GFR 2010 If it’s NATURAL, it must be good for you (?) ! No correlation between “naturalness” and healthfulness ! The most toxic substances known are perfectly “natural” ! Botulin toxin (canned foods) - most toxic substance ! Aflatoxin B 1 (from molds) - most potent carcinogen ! FST10 ©GMS/GFR 2010 If you can’t pronounce it ! You shouldn’t eat it? ! sounds catchy ! just plain silly ! Guys, would you refuse to date a girl because her name was hard to pronounce ? ! Girls . ..? ! What’s in a name? A rose by another name would smell as sweet . FST10 ©GMS/GFR 2010 There are CHEMICALS in my FOOD! ! Everything the size of an atom or larger is a chemical or a collection of chemicals, has a chemical name ! air (nitrogen, N 2 ; oxygen O 2 ; argon, Ar), water (dihydrogen monoxide) ! you, me, that guy over there . .. our food ! Get over it ! Don’t let chemical names scare you ! The question is whether they are healthful or harmful, and in what amount FST10 ©GMS/GFR 2010 Essential nutrients, toxic levels FST10 ©GMS/GFR 2010 The Chemicals We Eat ! Carbohydrates ! sugars ! complex carbohydrates ! Proteins ! Structural Proteins ! ! Lipids ! ! Fat-soluble vitamins ! a few others Chemistry - All is Chemistry 6
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Carbohydrates The most abundant organic molecules Initial source of ALL FOOD (photosynthesis) Provide Energy (~4.5 Cal/g) Carbon (to make other things) Fiber (no energy) Sometimes taste Significant contribution to the properties of foods … FST10 ©GMS/GFR 2010 Carbohydrates - Background ! Term comes from early observations of chemists that the formula: C n (H 2 O) n was common ! e.g. glucose is: C 6 H 12 O 6 or C 6 (H 2 O) 6 ! Appeared to look like “hydrated carbon” or ! carbon hydrates FST10 ©GMS/GFR 2010 Sugar nomenclature ! Chemically, sugars can be given the suffix “- ose” ! Gluc ose , galact ose , fruct ose etc. ! Classified according to the number of carbon atoms ! Trioses, tetroses, pentoses, hexoses ! Most foody sugars are or are made of HEXOSES ! Structures (Arrrrggghhhhh!) ! No, you don’t have to know them FST10 ©GMS/GFR 2010 Hexoses Aldoses - there are 8 D-aldohexoses D-(+)-allose CHO CH 2 OH CHO CH 2 OH CHO CH 2 OH CHO CH 2 OH CHO CH 2 OH CHO CH 2 OH CHO CH 2 OH CHO CH 2 OH D-(+)-mannose D-(-)-gulose D-(-)-idose D-(+)-galactose D-(+)-talose D-(+)-altrose D-(+)-glucose FST10 ©GMS/GFR 2010 Hexoses but only 4 D-ketohexoses, or hexuloses CH 2 OH O CH 2 OH CH 2 OH O CH 2 OH CH 2 OH O CH 2 OH CH 2 OH O CH 2 OH D-(-)-fructose D-(+)-psicose D-sorbose Natural isomer appears to be L- D-(-)-tagatose FST10 ©GMS/GFR 2010 O H OH H H H H OH OH OH CH 2 OH CH 2 OH C O C C C CH 2 OH HO H OH OH H H O CH 2 OH CH 2 HO OH OH H H H OH O O Cyclization furanoses and pyranoses ! -D-fructopyranose furan ! -D-fructofuranose pyran
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9_Intro-sugars+and+sweeteners - FOOD SCIENCE &...

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