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Unformatted text preview: Animal & Plant Fats & Oils
! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! FST 10 Roles of fats — lecture topics
Energy source Texture Adipose Essential fatty acids Fat soluble vitamins: A, D, E, K Flavor and ﬂavorings Heat transfer Fatty acid isomers (trans fats) We!ll now look at each of these individually FST10 ©GMS/GFR 2010 FST10 ©GMS/GFR 2010 FATS & OILS
! Caloric Values
! Roles of Fats
! Physicists! deﬁnition:
! ! Energy source 1 calorie raises 1 gram of water 1°C 1 kcal raises 1000 grams of water 1°C
! (actually, modern physicists use Joules instead of calories, but most nutritionists still use nomenclature related to calories). FST10 ©GMS/GFR 2010 FST10 ©GMS/GFR 2010 Caloric Values
Carbohydrates! ! Proteins! ! ! Fats! ! ! ! 4 kcal/gram 4 kcal/gram 9 kcal/gram
! ! Caloric Values
1 calorie raises 1 gram of water 1°C 1 kcal raises 1000 grams of water 1°C ! Nutritionists use the term Calorie to imply kcal or Big Calorie
Multiply Calories by 4.1868 to get kJoules. FST10 ©GMS/GFR 2010 FST10 ©GMS/GFR 2010 Recommendations for Fat Intake
! Is there Controversy? Recommendations of the USDA“Dietary Guidelines for Americans” ref: fats (Jan 2005)
! ! Choose a diet low in fat, saturated fat, cholesterol, and keep trans fats low Eat less than 35% of total calories from fats and oils (keep it between 20-35% of total calories) FST10 ©GMS/GFR 2010 FST10 ©GMS/GFR 2010 Is there Controversy? Is there Controversy? Revisions are (always) in the works FST10 ©GMS/GFR 2010 FST10 ©GMS/GFR 2010 Last year, Lt. Gov. Stephen L. Henry championed a bill that put minimum nutritional standards on foods sold in school vending machines Fighting ‘Big Fat’
An army is mobilizing in a war against junk food. The combatants: doctors, lawyers, preachers and moms Peg Tyne NEWSWEEK
Saturday, July 27, 2002 Types of Biopolymers in Foods
Is there a 'fat tax' in your future? Could be, experts say; obesity to blame, but food industry scoffs Tuesday, April 30, 2002 By LANCE GAY SCRIPPS HOWARD NEWS SERVICE WASHINGTON -- It's official: We're fat. Polymer
Carbohydrates Trigycerides Proteins Subunit
monosaccharides fatty acids amino acids Examples
sucrose, starch cooking oils collagen, gelatin IN BRIEF/RESTAURANTS Man Sues Fast-Food Chains for His Obesity Metabolic Syndrome By Associated Press A man sued four leading fast-food chains, claiming he became obese and suffered from other serious health problems from eating their fatty cuisine. Trigycerides - (Fats & Oils)
! Fatty Acids & Soaps
! 3 fatty acids attached to glycerol To take off the fatty acids, one method is
Saponiﬁcation: treatment of fats with a strong base (lye) to give salts of fatty acids (soap) FST10 ©GMS/GFR 2010 FST10 ©GMS/GFR 2010 Triglyceride hydrolysis
! ! ! FATS & OILS
! What’s the difference?
Fats are (semi)-solids at room temperature
! ! ! For digestion, we also need to hydrolyze the fatty acids off the glycerol ! There!s that word hydrolysis again… But we can!t use lye, so we use enzymes called lipases Q: Why do we care? A: Only free fatty acids are absorbed Shortening Lard Butter EVOO, Canola, Cottonseed, Soy... Palm and Coconut “oil”? We can argue about these...
FST10 ©GMS/GFR 2010 ! Oils are liquid at room temperature
! ! Normal hydrolysis of triglycerides breaking off the fatty acids (blue) by lipase (orange)
FST10 ©GMS/GFR 2010 Percentages of Fat — The Games People Play
! Lift pencils for a moment . . . Food industry labels fat% by weight and they like to tell you how fat isn!t there
! For example; “95% Fat Free” means 5% fat ! Nutritionists recommend <30% (+/-) by Calories
! And they think "calories! for diets ! These 2 numbers can be very different FST10 ©GMS/GFR 2010 Fat Content - Example 1
! Fat Content - Example 1
! We’ll use this to examine fat content 100 grams of food (no water — dry food)
! ! ! ! Calculate % calories from fat
100 grams of food (no water, just dry food) ! 30 g of from fat ! 70 g of CHOs and protein ! So, remember it!s 30% fat by weight Calculate calories: ! 30 x 9# # ! 70 x 4# # !T otal kcal# 30 grams of fat 70 grams of CHO!s and protein Could be labeled 70% "fat free! (30% fat) Since the labeling refers to % by weight ! = 270 kcal (fat) = 280 kcal (CHO!s & protein) = 550 kcal ! % fat by calories = 270/550 x 100 = 49% (almost half)
FST10 ©GMS/GFR 2010 FST10 ©GMS/GFR 2010 Fat Content - Example 2
! Fat Content - Example 2
! What would happen if we added 5 times the amount of water?
! ! ! 30 grams of fat 70 grams of CHO!s and protein 500 grams of water for a total of 600 g of food Calculate the calories: Fat# # # CHO/Protein# Water# # Total# #
! ! 30 x 9# # 70 x 4# # 500 x 0# # # # = 270 kcal = 280 kcal = 000 kcal = 550 kcal ! The % fat by weight is now 30/600 x 100 = 5%
! Could be labeled "95% fat free! (5% fat)
! The % fat by weight now = 30/600*100 = 5% % fat by calories = 270/550 x 100 = 49% Bottom line: ! It!s now “95% fat free” ! But the % calories from fat is the same (almost half)
FST10 ©GMS/GFR 2010 FST10 ©GMS/GFR 2010 More bottom line ...
! ! An example of ‘low fat’ franks
! ! By diluting a food with water, the % fat # (by weight) will go down However, just diluting with water does not change the % of calories from fat
(all other things being equal) 3% fat (by weight) 20% of calories from fat FST10 ©GMS/GFR 2010 FST10 ©GMS/GFR 2010 Another example ... With high water content ... FST10 ©GMS/GFR 2010 For Low-Fat types
! ! For Low-Fat types
Simplesse™ (made by NutriSweet & CP-Kelco)
made from dairy & egg proteins can be formulated as a powder may have problems with heating 1 calorie vs. 9 calories However, “up to 1% fat is OK ! ! FST10 ©GMS/GFR 2010 For Low-Fat types
! ! Olestra — Controversial
Get the facts about Olean brand olestra, the no-fat cooking oil
with the full-fat flavor! Here you'll find the specific information you're looking for about olestra and your favorite snacks. Just click on the topic you would like to know about or type a word or phrase in the search box. Olestra (Olean™ — Proctor & Gamble)
Chemically bonds fatty acids onto sugar molecules So large, they are indigestible The Olean and Healthy Snacking segment airing on TV Series! Click Here For The Newest Information For Health Care Professionals!
Click on the Olean Benefit most important to you.
Want Great Taste ? Find Out More Here. Find the information about olestra that you are looking for: Type a few words, then click Click here for: Sensible Snacks!
Low- fat foods form a foundation for healthy eating. Olean is a smart tool in the fight against fat! And for answers to common questions about Olean and Olestra, click here! Where can I find snacks made with Olean? Right here! Click for a list of greattasting, name - brand chips made with Olean! Special Information for: Normal hydrolysis of triglycerides breaking off the fatty acids (blue) by lipase (orange) © 2000 Procter & Gamble Legal Terms and Conditions Privacy Statement FST10 ©GMS/GFR 2010 Olestra — Controversial
For Immediate Release: October 25, 2004 Related Links: Letter to FDA The FACTS About Olestra (Olean) Olestra Report Form Olestra — Controversial
FDA Home Page | Search FDA Site | FDA A -Z Index | Contact FDA CSPI Warns Consumers About Frito- Lay “Light” Chips with Olestra
“WOW!” Chips Have New Name, But Same Old Side Effects, Says CSPI The Center for Science in the Public Interest (CSPI) today warned consumers that Frito- Lay’s “Light” snack chips are fried in the infamous, diarrhea- inducing fake fat known as olestra . Formerly known as WOW! chips, the rebranded products are now called Lays’s Light, Ruffles Light, Doritos Light, and Tostitos Light. CSPI says the move increases the odds that unwitting consumers will experience the cramps, diarrhea, bleeding, stained underwear, or incontinence associated with olestra. Today CSPI sent nearly 300 individual reports of olestra - related adverse reactions to the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). The FDA had already received more than 20,000 such reports—more than for any other food additive in history. Most of the reports involve diarrhea, gas, and cramps. Several of the recent victims sought emergency - room treatment, including a 33 - year - old Georgia woman who experienced severe cramping and diarrhea after eating olestra - containing Ruffles chips. Several victims reported embarrassing episodes of fecal incontinence in the workplace; one 19 - year - old man became incontinent on a date. “If you’re going to buy Lay’s Light, Ruffles Light, or Doritos Light, you also might want to stock up on Cottonelle, Quilted Northern, or Charmin—and plan not to stray too far from the bathroom,” CSPI executive director Michael F. Jacobson said. “Frito - Lay should have rebranded these chips as ‘OW!’ chips. This sudden name change is just a desperate attempt to revive a dying brand. Frito- Lay should have just pulled the plug altogether.” One 25 - year - old woman from South Bend, Ind., recently ate some Ruffles Light Cheddar & Sour Cream potato chips and reported severe diarrhea, gas, and nausea. “I did not notice until after reading the ingredients and having severe intestinal problems [that] olestra was in the ingredients,” she wrote on CSPI’s web- based complaint form. “My reaction was severely unpleasant.” In August 2003 the FDA dropped its requirement for a warning label on packages of olestra - containing chips. The label had read, “This product contains Olestra. Olestra may cause abdominal cramping and loose stools. Olestra inhibits the absorption of some vitamins and other nutrients. Vitamins A, D, E and K have been added.” In May of this year, the FDA approved olestra for use in microwave popcorn, though no popcorn makers have begun using it. “I threw away all my WOW! products,” wrote one 42 - year - old woman from Dearborn, MI. “The pain was extreme.”
T03 - 59 August 1, 2003 FDA Talk Paper
Media Inquiries: 301 - 436 - 2335 Consumer Inquiries: 888 - INFO - FDA Health Canada Rejects Olestra as a Food Additive
OTTWA, CANADA - Health Canada has rejected olestra, the indigestible fat substitute made by Procter and Gamble, for use as a food additive in Canada. According to a letter sent June 8 by Marc Le Maguer, the Director General of the Food Directorate, "Health Canada has completed its review of Olestra and has decided not to recommend that Olestra be permitted for use as a food additive in Canada." "We're pleased that Health Canada has decided to protect Canadians from olestra -containing products," said Michael Jacobson, executive director of the Centre for Science in the Public Interest (CSPI), a long -time opponent of olestra. "That will spare Canadians the gastrointestinal grief that thousands of U.S. consumers have experienced." While Health Canada is saying "no" to olestra, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA), under pressure from Procter and Gamble, is considering dropping the olestra warning notice ("may cause abdominal cramping or loose stools") from packages. The FDA has received more than 18,000 adverse -reaction reports related to olestra (2,687 from CSPI; more than 16,000 from Procter and Gamble). That's more such reports than the FDA has received for all other food additives in history combined. Many reports describe cases of severe diarrhea, including several Canadians who ate olestra -containing products on visits to the U.S. CSPI urges people who believe they suffered adverse effects as a result of eating olestra to file a report . FDA Changes Labeling Requirement for Olestra
The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) today announced a change in the labeling requirement for olestra - - the zero calorie fat substitute developed by Procter & Gamble Co. (P&G) for use in certain snack foods - - because FDA has concluded the label statement is no longer warranted. As a result of this decision, manufacturers will not be required to display the 1996 label statement on products containing olestra. However, FDA will require manufacturers to continue adding Vitamins A, D, E, and K to such products. Consumers will now see an asterisk after each of these added fat - soluble vitamins listed in the ingredient statement of products containing olestra. The asterisk will reference the statement, "Dietarily insignificant." FDA approved olestra in 1996 for use in savory snacks like potato chips, cheese puffs, and crackers. As part of that approval, FDA required manufacturers to add vitamins A, D, E, and K to olestra - containing foods to compensate for olestra’s effects on these fat - soluble vitamins. Also, as part of that approval, FDA required manufacturers to place a label statement on all products made with olestra informing consumers that olestra may cause abdominal cramping and loose stools in some individuals, that it inhibits the body’s absorption of vitamins A, D, E, and K and other nutrients, and that these vitamins have been added to compensate for olestra’s effects on these nutrients. FDA conducted a scientific review of several post - market studies submitted by P&G, as well as adverse event reports submitted by P&G and the Center for Science in the Public Interest. FDA concluded that the label statement was no longer warranted because: "Real - life" consumption studies of products containing olestra showed olestra caused only infrequent, mild gastrointestinal (GI) effects. In fact, a 6 - week study with more than 3,000 people showed that the group consuming olestra - containing chips experienced only a minor increase in bowel movement frequency compared to those people who consumed only full- fat chips. Post - market studies showed consumers are aware of olestra and its potential GI effects. Post - market consumer studies showed that consumers were confused by the required label because they did not understand that the label meant there would be no loss of vitamins. These post - market studies also indicated that consumers erroneously believed that vitamins and minerals not affected by olestra would be lost. At a 1998 FDA Foods Advisory Committee meeting there was agreement that an asterisk- linked statement on the ingredient panel about added vitamins A, D, E, and K would be more useful to consumers. While the current labeling requirements are effective immediately, FDA realizes and consumers can expect that there may be a period of time before companies introduce the new product label. For additional information, please visit http://www.fda.gov/OHRMS/DOCKETS/98 fr/00 F- 0792NFR00001.pdf . ### For Immediate Release: June 22, 2000 For more information: Bill Jeffery (613)565 - 2140 Keep Updated: Email updates RSS syndication Print Version Jump to: Role of Fats
! ! Energy source Texture FST10 ©GMS/GFR 2010 FST10 ©GMS/GFR 2010 Polymorphism
! More than one form of a substance
! Example: !, " & "! crystals (FST 100a) Why learn the (Greek) derivations?
1.35 ! From Greek “many forms”
! FST10 ©GMS/GFR 2010 Roles of Fats
! ! ! Energy source Texture Adipose tissue
! Prime Choice Select ! e.g. Marbling of meat USDA grading is based on fat distribution
FST10 ©GMS/GFR 2010 Utility Cutter Roles of Fats
! ! Essential fatty acids
! ! Energy source Are essential to proper metabolism Cannot be synthesized by the body
! Texture ! Adipose
! (or at least in sufﬁcient amounts) ! ! ! Linoleic ($6) Linolenic ($3) & maybe arachidonic ($6) acids
! Essential fatty acids Biochemists are still not certain exactly which ones are essential and how much you need For further reading, see McGee ! FST10 ©GMS/GFR 2010 FST10 ©GMS/GFR 2010 Essential fatty acids
! Prostalglandins Thought related to the production of these powerful hormones and biochemicals:
! ! ! Prostalglandins Leucotrienes Thromboxanes ! Probably the best known are the prostalglandins (seen in next slide)
FST10 ©GMS/GFR 2010 FST10 ©GMS/GFR 2010 Roles of fats
! ! Roles of fats
! ! ! ! ! ! Energy source Texture ! Adipose
! Essential fatty acids
Fat soluble vitamins: A, D, E, K
! Energy source Texture Adipose Essential fatty acids Fat soluble vitamins: A, D, E, K Flavor and ﬂavorings
! This topic is for nutrition classes…
FST10 ©GMS/GFR 2010 3 effects follow on the next 3 slides…
FST10 ©GMS/GFR 2010 Roles of fats — Flavor
! Roles of fats — Flavor
! ! 1-Storage of ﬂavor compounds 1-Storage of ﬂavor compounds 2-Speciﬁc for a product ( e.g. butter ) FST10 ©GMS/GFR 2010 FST10 ©GMS/GFR 2010 Roles of fats — Flavor
! ! ! Roles of fats
! ! ! ! ! ! 1-Storage of ﬂavor compounds 2-Speciﬁc for a product ( e.g. butter ) 3-Without fat - ﬂavor is a problem (“Ain!t Nothin! good without the grease” - Tina Turner Energy source Texture Adipose Essential fatty acids Fat soluble vitamins: A, D, E, K Flavor and ﬂavorings ! Heat transfer FST10 ©GMS/GFR 2010 FST10 ©GMS/GFR 2010 Roles of fats: heat transfer
! Fats, Double Bonds & Saturation (everything you were afraid to ask)
! ! ! Large molecules do not evaporate Can be heated to very high temperatures Heat transfer with hot fat is called: frying
FST10 ©GMS/GFR 2010 The world!s shortest (and oversimpliﬁed) explanation of double bonds, saturation and unsaturation follows ... FST10 ©GMS/GFR 2010 HH HCCH HH Ethane Single Bond HH HCCH Ethylene Double Bond
See also McGee
FST10 ©GMS/GFR 2010 C-18 Fatty Acids
COOH What’s with the OMEGA numbers?
! 18:0 — Stearic Acid Nutritionists are interested in the end of the molecule farthest from the acid group So the “last carbon” is like the last letter of the Greek alphabet — $ They number in from the (omega) end until they come to the 1st double bond
$6 $3 C-18 Fatty Acids
COOH COOH 18:1 — Oleic Acid ! 18:0 — Stearic Acid $9
COOH 18:1 — Oleic Acid COOH 18:2 — Linoleic Acid 18:3 — Linolenic Acid ! COOH 18:2 — Linoleic Acid 18:3 — Linolenic Acid COOH COOH FST10 ©GMS/GFR 2010 OMEGA numbers & saturation
! OMEGA numbers & saturation
! Nutritionists are interested in the proportions of the fatty acid types
! ! ! Polyunsaturated Monounsaturated Saturated Nutritionists are interested in the proportions of the fatty acid types
! ! ! Polyunsaturated Monounsaturated Saturated FST10 ©GMS/GFR 2010 FST10 ©GMS/GFR 2010 OMEGA numbers & saturation
! Fatty acid stuff — Too advanced for FST10 (Don’t write these down; these are just in case you read something about them like the label below...)
Chemists locate double bonds from the acid end & use the Greek symbol delta (%) Some biochemists & nutritionists use lower case “n” instead of $; well sort of... Things like ALA are different from GLA There are weird things that happen with some acids like “conjugated linoleic acid” See FST100 and advanced nutrition courses
FST10 ©GMS/GFR 2010 ! ! ! ! FST10 ©GMS/GFR 2010 But we do need to know a little more about Fatty Acid Cis & Trans Isomers Double Bonds H CC
2HC H CH2 2HC H CC CH2 ! ! Even though the number of atoms is the same there can be isomers Commonly referred to as CIS & TRANS double bonds H CIS TRANS FST10 ©GMS/GFR 2010 trans- fat. What’s that?
Some fatty acids have carbon-carbon double bonds they are not “saturated” with hydrogen.
cis- and trans unsaturations have •different shapes •different chemistries, and are broken down by •different enzymes
O saturated CH3 CH2 CH2 CH2 CH2 ... CH2 C OH trans -unsaturated H O C CH3 CH2 H C C H CH2 ... CH2 C OH
FST10 ©GMS/GFR 2010 Double Bonds
! ! Even more about... Cis double bonds are found in FAs in nature Trans double bonds are formed as byproducts of a synthetic chemistry processes called: ! “Hydrogenation” and are “Un-natural” or “Synthetic” Naturally-occurring fatty acids are cisFatty acids may have more than one unsaturation (mono-,di-, ... poly) CH3 CH2 C CH2 ... CH2 C H OH cis -unsaturated O FST10 ©GMS/GFR 2010 Catalytic Hydrogenation
! Lipids containing highly unsaturated FAs are liquids at room temperature - Oils. Lipids containing saturated FAs are solids at room temperature - Fats. Convert Vegetable oil to Margarine by catalytic hydrogenation - saturating SOME of the double bonds - partial hydrogenation. Partial hydrogenation also converts cisunsaturations to trans-double bonds - “transfat”.
FST10 ©GMS/GFR 2010 ! ! ! Even more about double bonds
! ! European-led research is beginning to tell us something… ! Cis double bonds are formed in nature Trans double bonds are formed by synthetic chemistry —> hydrogenation and are “un-natural” On labels look for “partially hydrogenated” oils of some kind FST10 ©GMS/GFR 2010 FST10 ©GMS/GFR 2010 Changing perception — avoid cholesterol or trans fats? Previous exam examples FST10 ©GMS/GFR 2010 FST10 ©GMS/GFR 2010 3) Which term describes the distribution of fat throughout meat tissue?
! ! ! ! ! 5) Which meat grade below has the greatest amount of marbling?
! ! ! ! ! a) Myoglobin b) Polymorphism c) Cellulite d) Marbling e) Retrogradation a) Select b) Utility c) Standard d) Cutter e) Choice FST10 ©GMS/GFR 2010 FST10 ©GMS/GFR 2010 6) This many calories are found in one gram of fat:
! ! ! ! ! 7) Diluting a food with water will ____ the % calories from fat.
! ! ! ! ! a) 1 b) 3 c) 4 d) 4.6 e) 9 a) Increase b) Decrease c) Not change d) Exponentially increase e) Signiﬁcantly decrease FST10 ©GMS/GFR 2010 FST10 ©GMS/GFR 2010 8) What causes the formation of “chunky butter?”
! ! ! ! ! 9) Which vitamin is not fatsoluble?
! ! ! ! ! a) Retrogradation b) Improper churning c) Making butter from non-fat milk d) Different forms of fat crystals e) Low humidity storage a) A b) C c) D d) E e) K FST10 ©GMS/GFR 2010 FST10 ©GMS/GFR 2010 10) Saturated fatty acids have _____ double bonds.
! ! ! ! ! 11) Trans double bonds are synthetically formed through a process called
! ! ! ! ! a) 0 b) 1 c) 2 d) 3 e) $-3 a) Saponiﬁcation b) Hydrogenation c) Hydrolysis d) Retrogradation e) Marbling FST10 ©GMS/GFR 2010 FST10 ©GMS/GFR 2010 Animal & Plant Fats & Oils Fini …
FST10 ©GMS/GFR 2010 ...
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This note was uploaded on 03/01/2011 for the course FST 10 taught by Professor Jack during the Fall '08 term at UC Davis.
- Fall '08