Plato, The Republic • Plato (ca. 427–347 BC) was an influential philosopher in Athens, Greece • Student of Socrates, teacher of Aristotle • Author of philosophical dialogues— foundational for Western thought and Christianity • Republic is a dialogue written ca. 380 BC • The subject is justice, the state, and mankind
Musical Terms Medieval Music Troubadours Bernart de Ventadorn Comtessa Beatriz de Dia Guillaume de Machaut
Genre • A general category of music or art (e.g. opera, symphony, string quartet, rock, blues, polka) • Characterized by style, form, and instrumentation, or subject matter • Genre identification may be somewhat subjective , as musical artists often blend or cross genre lines and genre characteristics may shif over time
Fundamentals of Music • Pitch (frequency); The degree to which a given sound seems “high” or “low” • Dynamics (Amplitude or volume): The degree to which a given sound seems loud or soft ( piano = soft; forte = strong or loud) • Texture : The complexity, density or number of different musical voices (or instruments) in a piece • Timbre : The “color” or idiomatic character of a musical tone
Melody • A tune • An organized sequence of pitches, organized rhythmically, often displaying musical shape • Principal part of harmonized music • The part that gets stuck in your head!
Harmony • Simultaneous sounding of different pitches
Rhythm • Rhythm : The arrangement of musical sounds within the dimension of time • Beat : Pulse—how musical time is measured • Tempo : The rate at which beats occur (speed) • Accents : Beats or notes that are emphasized
Form • The shape, structure, or architecture of music • May consist of a series of sections, with or without repetition • A piece composed without significant repetition is called “through composed”
Listening: Ashokan Farewell (1982) by Jay Ungar • Melody – Pitch, rhythm, shape • Harmony – supports and blends with melody • Texture & Timber – contrast and interweaving of violin & guitar • Form – Alternation of A section and B section
High Medieval Culture • “High Middle Ages” refers generally to the period 1000—1300 AD (or so) • Marked by reasonably stable and prosperous society based on an agrarian Feudalism • Society comprised several main groups : – Those who fight – Those who pray – Those who work – A small but growing class of merchant traders
High Medieval Culture • Characterized by: • The complete permeation of religion • Developments of plowing technology allowing a great increase in agricultural yield • Rise of heavy mounted cavalry among the nobility (“Knights in Shining Armor”) • The Crusades (1095–1291) • The code of Chivalry and revived learning • Development of incredible architectural skill – Castle fortifications – Gothic cathedrals
Troubadours • Troubadours were courtly musicians , often of noble rank, who began to flourish at the courts of Southern France during the twelfth century • Included both male and female musicians • Often used “courtly love” for subject matter; this usually involved the expression of an intense romantic longing without hope of carnal fulfillment.
You've reached the end of your free preview.
Want to read all 174 pages?
- Fall '19
- The Republic, Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart