Lecture_Notes_ - IE562 Fall 2010: Lecture Notes # 1 Problem...

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1 IE562 Fall 2010: Lecture Notes # 1 Problem Solving and Search - Global database, the central structure for any AI System - Clean separation of computational components - Production Systems contain a) Global Database b) Production Rules c) Control Strategy Gdb : Global database TGdb : Transformed Global database Scr : Stopping Criterion (terminating condition) Conventional Computational Systems & Production Systems - Hierarchically Organized Structures - Global database can be accessed by all rules - No part of it is local to any one of the rules - Rules do not call other rules - Modular Examples of Production Rules - Some examples of Production System Rules are given here. Approach is derived from Automata Theory and Linguistics 1. Natural Language Processing Any string can be generated by using rules of grammar. Let L(G)= Language generated by applying Grammar G. A String S’ L(G) if S’ confines to the rules of the Grammar G. T Gdb Gdb scr Production Rule application Control Preconditions
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2 G can be defined as a four-tuple <V N , V T , P, S> G: <V N , V T , P, S> Where V N : a set of Non-terminal Symbols V T : a set of Terminal Symbols P : a set of Production Rules S : a starting Symbol A typical case could be: V N : NP, VP, N, V, Det V T: a, an, the, man, ate, apple S <NP> <VP> NP <Det> <Noun> VP <Verb> <NP> Det a Det an Det the Noun Man Verb ate Noun apple These rules can recursively be applied to generate ”The man ate the apple” - Note that there is no control over ambiguity and semantics. - i.e., You can generate sentences which may be garbage semantically, yet syntactically correct.
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3 2. Monkey & Banana Problem A C B A Four – element list (W,X,Y, Z)) is selected for state space representation W = horizontal position of monkey X = 1 or 0 1: monkey on top of box 0: not on top of the box Y = horizontal position of box Z = 1 or 0 1: monkey grasped the bananas 0: not grasped the bananas Operators for the Problem 1. goto (U) monkey goes to position U 2. push box (V) monkey pushes the box to position V 3. Climb box monkey climbs the box 4. Grasp monkey grasps the bananas Note that each of these need certain preconditions to be satisfied. These operators can be represented by a set of Production Rules. 1. (W, 0, Y, 0) Goto (U) (U, 0, Y, 0) 2. (W, 0, W, 0) Pushbox (V) (V, 0, V, 0)
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4 3. (W, 0, W, 0) Climb box (W, 1, W, 0) 4. (C, 1, C, 0) Grasp (C, 1, C, 1) 2. Water Jug Problem You are given 4 gallon and 3 gallon water jugs and the objective of the exercise is to fill the 4 gallon jug with 2 gallons of water. You can only do the following: 1. Fill a jug with water 2. Pour water from one jug into another 3. Empty the jug on to the floor ie, - if the jug has space fill it full; - if one jug has water and another jug has space then pour water from the jug with water into the one which has space; - if the jug has water pour it on to the floor.
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This note was uploaded on 03/01/2011 for the course IE 597b at Pennsylvania State University, University Park.

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Lecture_Notes_ - IE562 Fall 2010: Lecture Notes # 1 Problem...

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