{[ promptMessage ]}

Bookmark it

{[ promptMessage ]}

Lecture_Notes_ - IE562 Fall 2010 Lecture Notes 1 Problem...

Info icon This preview shows pages 1–5. Sign up to view the full content.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
1 IE562 Fall 2010: Lecture Notes # 1 Problem Solving and Search - Global database, the central structure for any AI System - Clean separation of computational components - Production Systems contain a) Global Database b) Production Rules c) Control Strategy Gdb : Global database TGdb : Transformed Global database Scr : Stopping Criterion (terminating condition) Conventional Computational Systems & Production Systems - Hierarchically Organized Structures - Global database can be accessed by all rules - No part of it is local to any one of the rules - Rules do not call other rules - Modular Examples of Production Rules - Some examples of Production System Rules are given here. Approach is derived from Automata Theory and Linguistics 1. Natural Language Processing Any string can be generated by using rules of grammar. Let L(G)= Language generated by applying Grammar G. A String S’ L(G) if S’ confines to the rules of the Grammar G. T Gdb Gdb scr Production Rule application Control Preconditions
Image of page 1

Info icon This preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
2 G can be defined as a four-tuple <V N , V T , P, S> G: <V N , V T , P, S> Where V N : a set of Non-terminal Symbols V T : a set of Terminal Symbols P : a set of Production Rules S : a starting Symbol A typical case could be: V N : NP, VP, N, V, Det V T: a, an, the, man, ate, apple S <NP> <VP> NP <Det> <Noun> VP <Verb> <NP> Det a Det an Det the Noun Man Verb ate Noun apple These rules can recursively be applied to generate ”The man ate the apple” - Note that there is no control over ambiguity and semantics. - i.e., You can generate sentences which may be garbage semantically, yet syntactically correct.
Image of page 2
3 2. Monkey & Banana Problem A C B A Four element list (W,X,Y, Z)) is selected for state space representation W = horizontal position of monkey X = 1 or 0 1: monkey on top of box 0: not on top of the box Y = horizontal position of box Z = 1 or 0 1: monkey grasped the bananas 0: not grasped the bananas Operators for the Problem 1. goto (U) monkey goes to position U 2. push box (V) monkey pushes the box to position V 3. Climb box monkey climbs the box 4. Grasp monkey grasps the bananas Note that each of these need certain preconditions to be satisfied. These operators can be represented by a set of Production Rules. 1. (W, 0, Y, 0) Goto (U) (U, 0, Y, 0) 2. (W, 0, W, 0) Pushbox (V) (V, 0, V, 0)
Image of page 3

Info icon This preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
4 3. (W, 0, W, 0) Climb box (W, 1, W, 0) 4. (C, 1, C, 0) Grasp (C, 1, C, 1) 2. Water Jug Problem You are given 4 gallon and 3 gallon water jugs and the objective of the exercise is to fill the 4 gallon jug with 2 gallons of water. You can only do the following: 1. Fill a jug with water 2. Pour water from one jug into another 3. Empty the jug on to the floor ie, - if the jug has space fill it full; - if one jug has water and another jug has space then pour water from the jug with water into the one which has space; - if the jug has water pour it on to the floor.
Image of page 4
Image of page 5
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.

{[ snackBarMessage ]}

What students are saying

  • Left Quote Icon

    As a current student on this bumpy collegiate pathway, I stumbled upon Course Hero, where I can find study resources for nearly all my courses, get online help from tutors 24/7, and even share my old projects, papers, and lecture notes with other students.

    Student Picture

    Kiran Temple University Fox School of Business ‘17, Course Hero Intern

  • Left Quote Icon

    I cannot even describe how much Course Hero helped me this summer. It’s truly become something I can always rely on and help me. In the end, I was not only able to survive summer classes, but I was able to thrive thanks to Course Hero.

    Student Picture

    Dana University of Pennsylvania ‘17, Course Hero Intern

  • Left Quote Icon

    The ability to access any university’s resources through Course Hero proved invaluable in my case. I was behind on Tulane coursework and actually used UCLA’s materials to help me move forward and get everything together on time.

    Student Picture

    Jill Tulane University ‘16, Course Hero Intern