Lect 15 Human Uniqueness
Homo sapiens first emerges in the fossil record about 190 kya in Africa.
Characteristics of modern humans:
small face with protruding chin
rounded skull, with reduced super orbital torus
less robust post-cranial skeleton
he hallmark of AMH is their behavior not their small changes in anatomy
The late Pleistocene humans are characterized by four major changes:
-- expands to include dry areas, and far northern regions.
Near the end of the Pleistocene they colonize all areas of the earth.
exploit megafauna, fish, birds, and plants.
- they made a wide variety of tool types in highly standardized
These varied through time and across space, and later included tools
made from antlers, ivory, bone and wood as well as stone.
They made elaborate shelters, clothing, projectile weapons.
-- they lived at higher densities, in larger groups, and
probably traded long distances for raw materials
-- they created art, adorned themselves, performed
ritual burials and probably practiced other symbolic behaviors. Lots of evidence
of regional ethnic groups.
cultural period began in Europe about 40,000 years ago.
It may have begun earlier in other regions of the world.
This period is divided into industries based on stone tools
Aurignacian (40-28 kya)
Gravettian (28-22 kya)
Solutrean (19-15 kya)
Dramatic changes around the world from 165 kya-75 kya in Africa.
Better documentation in Europe after H. sapiens arrives.
shift is the emphasis on long blades (Mode 4).
These were probably
hafted to wood or other material.
new technologies, including a greater variety of
as chisels, scrapers, points, knives, drills,
, borers, etc.
made from a greater
variety of raw materials
Some, such as lamps, bone
harpoons, etc. many of these tools were more complex in manufacture (e.g.
efficient stone blade production and composite tools using embedded
) and use (e.g. multi-component tools, such as spear-throwers).
Some tools are made from
>250 miles away.