ASB 194 lectw15.doc

ASB 194 lectw15.doc - Lect 15 Human Uniqueness Homo sapiens...

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Lect 15 Human Uniqueness Homo sapiens first emerges in the fossil record about 190 kya in Africa. Characteristics of modern humans: small face with protruding chin rounded skull, with reduced super orbital torus less robust post-cranial skeleton T he hallmark of AMH is their behavior not their small changes in anatomy . The late Pleistocene humans are characterized by four major changes: 1) Ecological range -- expands to include dry areas, and far northern regions. Near the end of the Pleistocene they colonize all areas of the earth. Frequently exploit megafauna, fish, birds, and plants. 2) Technology - they made a wide variety of tool types in highly standardized form. These varied through time and across space, and later included tools made from antlers, ivory, bone and wood as well as stone. Many composite tools. They made elaborate shelters, clothing, projectile weapons. 3) Social Organization -- they lived at higher densities, in larger groups, and probably traded long distances for raw materials 4) Symbolic expression -- they created art, adorned themselves, performed ritual burials and probably practiced other symbolic behaviors. Lots of evidence of regional ethnic groups. The Upper Paleolithic cultural period began in Europe about 40,000 years ago. It may have begun earlier in other regions of the world. This period is divided into industries based on stone tools 1. Aurignacian (40-28 kya) 2. Gravettian (28-22 kya) 3. Solutrean (19-15 kya) 4. Magdalenian (17-10kya) Technology: Dramatic changes around the world from 165 kya-75 kya in Africa. Better documentation in Europe after H. sapiens arrives. A major shift is the emphasis on long blades (Mode 4). These were probably hafted to wood or other material. new technologies, including a greater variety of standardized tool types such as chisels, scrapers, points, knives, drills, burins , borers, etc. Tools were made from a greater variety of raw materials . Some, such as lamps, bone harpoons, etc. many of these tools were more complex in manufacture (e.g. efficient stone blade production and composite tools using embedded microliths ) and use (e.g. multi-component tools, such as spear-throwers). Some tools are made from stone sources >250 miles away.
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the use of artifacts for symbolic expression, including "styles" as measures of identity. .. subtle stylistic differences in the same functional tool types seem to indicate the development of regional cultural traditions the pace of technological development and stylistic change increases rapidly art, ornamentaion and jewelry appear for the first time. Burins- an important chisel tool used to make other tools (awls, pins, needles). Projectile weapons: throwing spear (400 kya Germany), spear thrower (> 30 kya
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This note was uploaded on 03/01/2011 for the course ASB 194 taught by Professor Hill during the Spring '11 term at ASU.

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ASB 194 lectw15.doc - Lect 15 Human Uniqueness Homo sapiens...

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