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Unformatted text preview: Motherhood &Reproductive Rights &Reproductive Learning Objective Learning To understand the politics of To reproduction Brief History of the Conception of Birth Control Birth Mid-nineteenth century, U.S. experienced Mid-nineteenth increased urbanization and industrialization which removed the necessity for large families, especially in the middle class especially Early feminist activists such as Emma Early Goldman and Margaret Sanger saw birth control as a way to free women from unwanted pregnancies and allow them to work outside of the home if they chose the Fertility Concerns and the Eugenics Movement Eugenics
50% drop in fertility rates of white, middle 50% and upper-class women “white race” and Eugenics movement devoted to Eugenics improving the human species by controlling heredity – selective breeding to “improve” the offspring of the human race “improve” forced sterilization--poor, feeble-minded, forced immigrants, women of color immigrants, 1950s/1960s/1970s Rethinking Reproduction Reproduction State laws begin to change NOW, ACLU, AMA FDA approves oral contraceptives Supreme Court decisions Family Planning Funds Speak-outs Sherri Finkbine – center of abortion Sherri controversy controversy 1960s and 1970s 1960s 1965 Supreme Court decision, Griswold 1965 v. Connecticut, defined the use of birth control as a right, not a crime, but only for married people for 1972 Supreme Court decision, 1972 Eisenstadt v. Baird, ends band on contraception for non-married people contraception Right to Privacy in Eisenstadt v. Baird v. “Right of individuals, married or single, to Right be free of unwarranted governmental intrusion into matters so fundamentally affecting a person as the decision whether to bear or beget a child” whether Black Community Divided Black Birth control pill seen as a black genocide tool – Birth government attempt to limit black population and stunt black political power black Sterilization abuse of African-American women by Sterilization white medical establishment 60s and 70s, federally funded welfare programs underwrote 60s the coercive sterilization of thousands of poor black women in the South – the “Mississippi appendectomy” the 60s and 70s, teaching hospitals in New York City and Boston 60s performed hysterectomies on poor black and Puerto Rican women – complaint filed by a group of medical students women Black Community and Reproduction Reproduction African-American women caught in a African-American bind – wanting to control their fertility but also distrusting of why they should also Black liberation activist Tone Cade, "I've Black been made aware of the national call to Sisters to abandon birth control... to picket family planning centers... to raise revolutionaries.... What plans do you have for the care of me and my child?" 1970s 1970s 1973 Supreme Court decision, Roe v. 1973 Wade, abortion must be part of the right of individuals to decide whether to have a child ruled that at different points during a ruled pregnancy, separate but legitimate rights collide – division of pregnancy into trimesters trimesters Three Stages of Pregnancy Three First Trimester—women’s right to privacy First without interference from the state without Second Trimester - state can regulate Second abortion to protect maternal health abortion Third Trimester – abortion may be Third performed to save the health or life of the mother, “viability” of the fetus mother, Challenges Since Roe v Wade Challenges End of trimester rule - flexible definition of fetus End viability viability Amniocentesis – testing for genetic Amniocentesis abnormalities abnormalities Hyde Amendment – provision barring the use Hyde of federal funds to pay for abortions of lowof income women Global Gag rule – refusing international aid to Global family planning organizations that perform abortions abortions RU486 – non-surgical “abortion” pill Challenges Since Roe v Wade Challenges “Partial birth abortion” law signed by President Partial Bush in 2003, yet shortly after the signing, three federal judges issued temporary injunctions to prevent the law from taking effect. The district court judges—in New York, Nebraska and California—all found the ban unconstitutional because of its failure to provide an exception to preserve the woman's health. Voluntary Motherhood Voluntary
The more and better and safer ways The there are to manage reproduction, the more we can save the dignity of motherhood. motherhood. Contemporary Trends in Reproduction Reproduction Fewer children Late children Single mothers Child free Census Bureau Findings Census In 2006, 20% of women ages 40-44 have no In children, in 1976 it was 10% children, In 2006, women ages 40-44 had an average of In 1.9 children, in 1976, the average was 3.1 1.9 In 2006, of women 40-44 with graduate or In professional degrees, 27% are childless compared with 18% of women who did not continue their education past high school continue Reasons for Change Reasons Rise in age of marriage Availability of contraception http://www.youtube.com/watch?v =CoqErv8bdcI Increased education Increased workforce participation Health care technology Policy Questions Policy Should control be exerted by the state Should over the number of people born? over How much control should individual men How and women have over their fertility? and What role does the state play or should What play in the protection and care of children? children? Quiz this week! Quiz Definitely read articles by Bohmer and Definitely Parrot, Mahoney, and Sherwin Parrot, ...
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- Spring '07