2b Theory&methods.ppt

2b Theory&methods.ppt - SOCIAL RESEARCH How do we...

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SOCIAL RESEARCH
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How do we know something? Faith Expert opinion Common wisdom Science Systematic observation and analysis
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COMMON SENSE or SCIENCE? Cohabitation before marriage reduces divorce. Science: It increases probability of divorce. The U.S. is a middle class society; most people are more or less equal. Science: Richest 5% control half of country’s wealth. Most people on welfare are lazy and looking for a handout. Science: Most people on welfare are children, elderly, mentally and physically disabled, and young single mothers with few skills. < 2% are able-bodied men.
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Scientific Sociology Scientific Sociology : : study of society based on systematic observation and analysis of social behavior. gathers empirical evidence that can be verify with our senses assumes that an objective reality exists waiting to be uncovered. This assumption is called Positivism .
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RESEARCH PROCESS Select topic. Review published research literature. Formulate hypotheses . (click view notes if you want a definition and examples) Consider ethical issues. Select a methodology . Collect data. Analyze data. Share the knowledge. What’s the news?
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Methodologies are systematic plans for conducting research We’ll look at 4 common methodologies in Sociology: Experiments Surveys Participant observation Unobtrusive measures
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Random assignment of subjects Experimental group Experimental group Measure Dependent Variable Before Control group Measure Dependent Variable After Exposure to Independent Variable NO YES Experimental group Experimental group Control group Experiments highly control conditions to test a hypothesis could use to test if watching violence on TV causes children to act aggressively methodology: EXPERIMENTS EXPERIMENTS
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Survey identify population of interest select a representative sample of it Random—everyone has same chance of being picked Stratified random—over-sample small groups to make sure that you have enough of them to analyze ask questions in a neutral way quantitative (statistical) analysis like experiments usually provide far more variables to examine, but often they are not exactly the ones that you want. having a representative sample is critical SURVEYS SURVEYS
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Participant Observation Join in activities of groups such as working in a nursing home to study how residents are treated or joining an environmental group to study the goals, ideologies, methods, and decision making of this social movement Record field notes for later analysis Analysis is more descriptive than analytical; more in- depth, although narrow in focus “Qualitative,” rather than quantitative analysis Examples: Little Big Men: Bodybuilding Subculture and Gender Construction by Alan Klein and Nickel and Dimed: On (Not) Getting By in America by Barbara Ehrenreich (click view notes for descriptions of these studies) PARTICIPANT OBSERVATION PARTICIPANT OBSERVATION
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This note was uploaded on 03/01/2011 for the course SOC 101 taught by Professor Sullivan during the Spring '08 term at ASU.

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2b Theory&amp;amp;methods.ppt - SOCIAL RESEARCH How do we...

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