KINERJA KEUANGAN, POLITICAL VISIBILITY, KETERGANTUNGAN PADA HUTANG

KINERJA KEUANGAN, POLITICAL VISIBILITY, KETERGANTUNGAN PADA HUTANG

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249 SIMPOSIUM NASIONAL AKUNTANSI VI Surabaya, 16 – 17 Oktober 2003 KINERJA KEUANGAN, POLITICAL VISIBILITY, KETERGANTUNGAN PADA HUTANG, DAN PENGUNGKAPAN TANGGUNG JAWAB SOSIAL PERUSAHAAN EDDY RISMANDA SEMBIRING Universitas Katolik St. Thomas Sumatera Utara Abstract The aim of this paper is to examine some determinants of corporate social responsibility disclosure in Indonesian companies. The sample is 44 Indonesian corporation listed in Jakarta Stock Exchange and employ the number of corporate social responsibility disclosure sentences as a dependent variable. Based on a review of previous researches, six independent variables are extracted for a multiple regression analysis. The independent variables used in the analysis are 1) profitability; 2) age of companies; 3) earning per-share; 4) company size; 5) public ownerships; and 6) dependence on debt. The results indicate that company size has a significant positive influence on the corporate social responsibility disclosure at 5% level of significance and earning per-share, public ownerships, and dependence on debt have a significant negative influence on corporate social responsibility disclosure at 10% level of significance. These results generally coincide with other research findings on corporate social responsibility disclosure. Key words : disclosure, social disclosure, financial performance, political visibility, dependence on debt. 1. Pendahuluan 1.1. Latar Belakang Penelitian Dalam upaya menguji hubungan antara disclosure , kinerja sosial dan kinerja keuangan, literatur ilmiah saat ini fokus pada hubungan potensial antara (1) pengungkapan tanggung jawab sosial dan kinerja sosial, (2) pengungkapan tanggung jawab sosial dan kinerja keuangan, serta (3) kinerja sosial dan kinerja keuangan. Berdasarkan konseptualisasi dan operasionalisasi variabel, hasil yang diperoleh bergerak dari korelasi yang kuat sampai tidak ada korelasi sama sekali. Keanekaragaman hasil menurut Belkaoui dan Karpik (1989) terletak pada kesalahan menganalisa hubungan antara pengungkapan tanggung jawab sosial, kinerja sosial dan kinerja keuangan dengan menggunakan konsep model yang sederhana seperti dalam penelitian Aldag dan Barto (1978),Ullman (1985); Epstein et. al., (1976), Gray et. al ., (1988), Preston (1983) dan Belkaoui (1984). Menurut Ullman (1985), ada tiga tipe penelitian ilmiah yang diarahkan pada akuntansi sosial perusahaan. Pertama , penelitian yang menguji hubungan potensial antara luasnya pengungkapan tanggung jawab sosial perusahaan dan kinerja sosialnya dengan hipotesis bahwa jumlah dan kualitas pengungkapan tanggung jawab sosial berhubungan positif dengan kinerja sosial perusahaan. (Abbot dan Monsen, 1979; Bowman dan Haire, 1975; Freedman dan Jaggi, 1982; Fry dan Hook, 1976; Ingram dan Frazier, 1980; Preston, 1978; dan Wiseman, 1982). Pengungkapan tanggung jawab sosial umumnya diukur dengan cara yang berbeda yang antara lain menggunakan (1) skala pengungkapan tanggung jawab sosial dari Ernst dan Ernst (1978), (2) persentase uraian dalam laporan tahunan, (3) kualitas pengungkapan dalam laporan keuangan, dan (4) jumlah pengungkapan dalam laporan tahunan.
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