Islam lec - 9/30 Islam in Russia Lecture Catherine adds...

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9/30 Islam in Russia Lecture Catherine adds huge area to empire… Expansion brings other Muslim groups, policies are unsuccessful… Catherine comes around w/ the same mission but with a diff approach Toleration of All Faiths Edict - Catherine pays particular attn to Crimea, as the Crimeans could serve as a new bridge to the conquest of new Muslim regions - Khan no longer exists after conquer and this goes to authority of Russian governor of Crimea - 1783 Catherine II creates Crimean district gov’t - Muslim ‘clergy’ of the Crimeans received super attn after the Russian conquer of Crimea - b/c by getting to the clergy the gov’t would be much more successful in their eventual mission - Muslim clergy powers would still exist - Muslim clergy put on gov’t payroll - in the past it was the people who provided money for the mullahs… - Mufti (head of spiritual assembly) was given an annual salary = to his Russian counterparts - gov’t sending religion to top religious establishment - landholdings of the waqf foundations (properties of religious endowments) were about 20-30% of the arable lands, and tax free, and denied to Russian officials and settlers of any origin - this meant that land could be taken from the nobles/peasants but not from the waqf lands, so the new settlers who came would have to take from the people - 1788: Muslims of the Volga for the first time in their history was recognized as an entity that could be given a religious organization of itself: Muftiat - 1798 (10 yrs after the conquer of Crimea) the mufti was granted nobility - he was not taxed - so when the gov’t asks of his something, he is going to be receptive to this… but not all muftis were sellouts but it made it hard anyways - 1796- 1797: imperial gov’t commissioned the printing of Qur’ans (in Arabic) at gov’t expense - these Qur’ans are distributed free of charge to the people - many had left Crimea anyways, huge waves of emigration = for fear of being forcibly converted to Christianity - Crimeans fled to Ottoman Empire area that’d been the protector of Crimean since the 15 th century - 1774 (Ottomans lost to Russia, and this is when this stopped) - death of a mufti posed a huge problem to the imperial gov’t - b/c it raises the question of who to elect next - 1791 death of the mufti: so a new committee created: Crimean Muslim Religious Committee
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- this committee in charge of enforcing gov’t laws, like the 1831 edict… - puts the Crimean Muslim establishment in a system kind of that like the Russian imperial bureaucracy - conflict in the Musim community would be resolved by the Muslim law?? - this is a front that gives the community the feel that they are still somewhat autonomous but it is really just a façade in the Russian’s governmental conquest mission - disputes b/w Russians and Muslims was were the imperial gov’t was in charge - but dispute b/w Muslims in their own community and technical matters was their own business - gov’t still dead set on controlling this community, but doing it in a long gradual way
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