RELInotes - IntellectualRevivalinIndia th 03:44 Bythe18

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Intellectual Revival in India 03:44 By the 18 th  century, the Ottoman and Mughal empires started to stagnate. The  rise of Europe and the awareness of another identity was an indirect inspiration  for the revival of Islam. Islamic form of identity became central.  India was inherently religiously and ethnically diverse. Muslims began to enter  India between 711-13 in the Sindh province. People of the book (Jews, Christians, Muslims) were protected religions under  Islam. The realities of governing such a diverse group meant that Hindus and  Zoroastrians had to be included. The definitional boundaries became stretched  particularly for political reasons. Muhammad Hayat al-Sindi leaves the Mughal empire because he is unhappy for  the inclusion of Hinduism in Islam- saw it as a decline in the position of the court.  He left for Hajj where he established a circle of students including Muhammad  ibn Al Wahab and Shah Wali Ullah. The isnad (going back to early sources) is  brought about in India by these men. Another Islamic revivalist thought was breaking away from legal fixity and using  more than one schools of thought to decide on a law (Maliki, Hanafi etc) Ibn Arabi (1240) was the most influential Sufi mystic in terms of his theoretical  ideas. His notion of unity of being i.e. through meditation, you see that all creation  has to do with God- there is no distinction between God and his creation. This led 
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This note was uploaded on 03/02/2011 for the course RELI 2080 taught by Professor Ahmedalrahim during the Spring '11 term at UVA.

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RELInotes - IntellectualRevivalinIndia th 03:44 Bythe18

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