Lecture_2 Class

Lecture_2 Class - Genetics Genetics GregorMendel(18221884)

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Genetics Genetics Gregor Mendel (1822 –1884) Phenotype – organism observable traits  Gene – a hereditary unit Genotype – the traits that pass on to the  offspring through genetic material Alleles – two genes that control the same  trait  An  organism with identical genes for a trait  is called  homozygous  An organism with different genes for a trait  is called  heterozygous  A  dominant  gene dominates a  recessive   gene in heterozygous organism. Such peas  with just 1 brown gene  will always be brown.  Just like eyes. Dominant and recessive phenotypes. (1)  Parental generation. (2) F1 generation. (3) F2 
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Thomas Hunt Morgan: Nobel Prize 1933 Genes are located on chromosomes
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James D. Watson and Francis Crick Nobel Prize 1962 DNA is a double helix of complimentary nucleotide bases: Adenine – Thymine Guanine - Cytosine Rosalind Franklin
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Every somatic cell has 46  chromosomes
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Every germ cell (gamete) has 23  chromosomes
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Why is gene expression important?
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Functions of proteins Proteins are an essential nutrient for all living things.  The structure of cells is largely made of protein.  The receptor for hormones and other signaling molecules are proteins.  Motion and locomotion of cells and organisms depends on contractile  proteins. (muscles)  The catalysis of all biochemical reactions is done by enzymes which contain  protein.  The transport of materials in body fluids depends of proteins (insulin in your  blood) The transcription factors that turn genes on and off to guide the  differentiation of the cell are proteins.  and many more —  proteins are truly the physical basis of life
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Enhancer Coding Promoter GENE on a  chromosome Transcription  factor, or  Operator gene Regulatory Region Gene activation: Transcription In the Cell Nucleus mRNA RNA polymerase Complimentary bases in mRNA: Adenine – Uracil Guanine- Cytosine mRNA
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mRNA Protein Nucleus Cytoplasm Transcription Translation Animation ribosome
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Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA): A long complex macromolecule consisting of two interconnected  helical strands; along with associated proteins, strands of DNA  constitute the chromosomes. Gene: The functional unit of the chromosome, which directs synthesis  of one or more proteins. Messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA):
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This note was uploaded on 03/02/2011 for the course PSYCH 18000 taught by Professor Staff during the Spring '08 term at CUNY Hunter.

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Lecture_2 Class - Genetics Genetics GregorMendel(18221884)

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